Nils Abramson, in 1969, used concentric circle sets, which show ellipses and hyperbolas, to describe the geometrical relationships in holograms between the reference source, object and hologram. We used concentric circle sets, when looking at ellipses in the expanding universe, to understand the uniformity of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The following drawings are the intersection of concentric circle sets when the circles have width making them rings. The rings are drawn with with a certain width of pen. The way a pen interacts with a drawing is called the penmode. The digital logic penmode used here is: not-xor, not-exclusive-or, which is called NOTXORPEN in Liberty Basic and in Windows.

The red and pink rings interact producing yellow. Green and cyan rings interact producing yellow. Black and black rings interact producing white. It is easiest to see the rings in the first drawing. The red ring intersects with the pink ring and produces yellow. It is much harder to see the ring interactions at higher resolution where the interacting rings merge into ellipses and hyperbolas. The pensize or width to draw the rings is 64 pixels in the first drawing, 32 pixels in the second, 16 in the third. There are three at 8 pixels including the green and cyan drawing and the black and white one after it. Then two drawings at 4 pixels. The black and white pensize in the last drawing is 2 pixels which allows the moire pattern to start to show up.

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