We explore a simple classical model of the universe in dynamic equilibrium using simple theoretical physics. The flat rotation curves of galaxies, prevalence of dark matter in galaxy dynamics and uniformity of the cosmic microwave background are shown to be a consequence of this dynamic universe. Wiki calls these, "unsolved problems of physics." The age, radius, mass, expansion rate and density of the universe are unambiguously shown to apply to a black hole and are in the range of mainstream values frequently quoted.
Expanding universe, black hole universe, rotating universe, black hole formulas, variable gravitational constant, cosmic microwave background, dark matter, flat rotation curves of galaxies.
The planetary atom and the ring electron are examples of tiny machines which illuminate matter. We extended the realm of the tiny machines to the helical electromagnetic wave. Here we explore a simple classical model of the universe in dynamic equilibrium.
Once you see the expanding spinning black hole universe as an entity, as a dynamic unit, it has a more local personal character. You no longer see it in isolation. It is a ball in play in a much larger game. The cosmos is the universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole. The universe is the totality of all things. Cosmos deals with structure, it has more the clockwork dynamic quality which seems to fit an object of study better than the existential term universe. Here cosmos will be the name preferred for our local dynamic unit. It is also called the observable universe.
The cosmos has the radius, mass and density quoted for the observable universe. The cosmos is an entity which rotates and expands with respect to something larger and outside itself. It is a subset of the universe. The universe is the totality of all things that exist and the source of the material for our cosmos. Our cosmos continues to expand and slow in its rotation according to the rules of dynamics.
Each circle is a cross section of the cosmos at a different time. The triangle shows the way it expands and rotates. Light orbits at the perimeter of the cosmos. As the cosmos increases in size, light orbits farther out. Most observers would look out in any direction and see the cosmos expanding faster at greater distances. This is a Hubble expansion. We rotate with respect to that which is very far away and is outside our dynamic unit.
Joni Mitchell, "The Circle Game", sees time as a carousel. Our Cosmos is also a carousel. As far as you can see, receeding into the distance, are painted ponies. We see the Carousel expand as the painted ponies drift apart. Do the painted ponies go round and round? Our telescopes haven't seen far enough, to see past the Carousel, to see any background against which it might rotate. We are still a ship sailing, on the ocean of the Cosmos, out of sight of land. We must use mechanics and the consistancy of the picture painted by math, as science has always done, to infer the rotation of the cosmos from the rules of dynamics, observations of the CMB, alignment of the rotational axis of galaxies and the polarization of the quasars. There is a lot of math detail so that the ideas are more accessable. One may reason as to their correctness. There is no one above you. You are the authority who must decide.
The length of the hypotenuse of the triangle is the velocity of light times the age of the cosmos, at that particular time, or r = c*age. The hypotenuse expands and has a tangent velocity of the speed of light, v = c. The base of the triangle expands and rotates at its fixed fraction, fr, of the speed of light, v = fr*c. This fraction, fr, is the cosine of the triangle. We can see that a location, the circled point on the base of the triangle, where we might be located, expands radially outward at a constant velocity, proportional to its fraction of the radius of the cosmos. Every location within this cosmos, has a constant tangent and radial velocity which are proportional to its radius. Since the velocity is constant, the acceleration is zero, and no force and no power is required for it to continue on its journey. A location spirals out as the cosmos expands and rotates. The location stays at the same constant fraction “fr” of the radius of the cosmos, r = fr*c*age, and a constant velocity of, v = fr*c. Here fr at the location is .7 and the velocity is, v = fr*c = .7*c. This is a Hubble expanding cosmos.
This is another way of looking at the triangles. Light really doesn't orbit - it spirals out. Everything spirals out. Everything spirals apart as the Cosmos grows and slows in its rotation.
The Cosmos rotates at c at a radius of r = c*age.
Everything has the same tiny angular velocity = c/(c*age) = 1/age = 2.11E-18_1/s, radians per second.
Age is the age of the Cosmos. Hubble's constant is 1/age.
Pluto orbits at 4753_m/s at a radius of 5.913E12_m. Plutos angular velocity is 4753_m/s / 5.913E12_m = 8.038E-10_1/s, radians per second.
The Cosmos rotates 831 million times slower than Pluto. This tiny angular velocity will be very hard to detect. The angular velocity was larger in the past. It is changing with a very small
angular acceleration = -1/age2 = -4.46E-36_1/s2 or radians per second squared.
From inside the void left by the departing perimeter, we see the very nearly uniform microwave background radiation, also known as the cosmic microwave background, CMB. The CMB which is heat may come from the spherical region where light orbits. The fact that the CMB
appears uniform, implies that we might be near the center of the CMB and the Cosmos, an unlikely occurance, which we will revisit later. The glow of the CMB is decreasing since the perimeter's
4*pi*r2 = 4*pi*c2*age2 is proportional to the age2 and luminosity to 1/age2. The luminosity is decreasing at the same rate as the Cosmos is slowing down in its rotation. Its glow is also greatly reduced by the inverse square nature of radiation in its immense travel thru space. It can be described, by the equation for a sphere expanding at the speed of light, like an electromagnetic wave with a radius of r = c*age, or x2+y2+z2 = c2*age2, but this is beyond the scope of our simple dynamics.
Edwin Hubble determined from the linear doppler redshift of galaxies that they are receding at a rate proportional to distance. It is called doppler because of the familiar doppler frequency shift of sound with the velocity of the sound source. Here the frequency shift is in the light toward the red with increasing velocity of recession. Think of a sine wave appearing stretched as it moves away. The peaks of the sine wave seem stretched farther apart as it moves away. There is a longer duration between the peaks as the sine wave moves away. The longer duration is the sum of the natural original duration between the peaks of the sine wave plus the duration between the peaks added by the recession of the sine wave. The sine wave seems to have a lower red shifted frequency. The sine wave is unchanged only our point of view and relative velocity has changed. Does space stretch? How could it? Space is empty. How could we see billions of light years with telescopes unless space is empty? Is it more likely that our point of view has changed or that space has changed by becoming stretched? Some people mistake abstraction for reality.
Edwin Hubble determined from the linear doppler redshift of galaxies that the velocity of recession at a certain distance, divided by
that distance is a constant.
Hubble's constant, H0, is about 65 km/(s*Mpc), kilometers per second per million parsecs.
In smaller units, this is 2.11E-18_m/s per meter, 2.11 times 10 to the minus 18 meters per second per meter or 2.11E-18_1/s.
Using these smaller more familiar units may lead you to wonder if the expansion is also local. Does the Hubble expansion extend to the galaxy, to the solar system, to atoms? If it exists, was it missed because the size of the expansion is so small? What is the evidence, not the opinions?
Hubble's constant has units of 1/seconds which is frequency or angular velocity, and 1/seconds which is 1/age. We will use several forms. The reciprocal of this is 4.74E17_s or 15 billion years, hereafter for clarity, called the age or the age of the universe.
At earlier times, Hubble's constant was bigger and the Cosmos was smaller.
Hubble's constant is, 1/age = c/(c*age) = c/15 billion light years. This implies that the Cosmos is expanding at the speed of light, at its current perimeter,
at a radius = 15 billion light years, r = c*age = 1.42E26_m, the current radius of the universe. Hubble varies, but the radial velocity of expansion is constant, with distance divided by age or, vr = r/age = c*age/age = c. This is age and radius, based on the currently observed expansion rate, not an affirmation of a creation event 15 billion years ago. A better choice of origin, for our local dynamic unit, our Cosmos, is growth by accretion, accumulation, clumping and merger which are inherently random. Merger can not predict an exact time of creation or an origin from a point as does the sacrosanct Big Bang. Merger is a choice, in favor of the mundane and more likely, over the miraculous. The more we know, the less we seem to be the center of the universe.
Binary star systems and galaxies show rotational doppler redshift. The approaching star in a binary system is more blue and the receeding star is more red. The approaching side of a galaxy is more blue and the receeding side of a galaxy is more red. The color change is due to velocity. Vera Rubin found that in many galaxies, the velocity seen in the red shift in the rotation of the galaxy does not follow Kepler's laws by decreasing with radius but stays the same at greater radius. The galaxies are said to have flat rotation curves. Radio telescopes extended these flat rotation curves out to the dust clouds that orbit galaxcies. We will extend these flat rotation curves even further.
Non-doppler redshift is redshift unrelated to the velocity of recession. The much hotter star in a binary system shows non-doppler redshift. Since the binary stars are receeding at a common velocity, the substantial non-doppler redshift of the hotter star is not due to velocity. The sun also shows non-doppler solar redshift. There is an unknown ratio between doppler and non-doppler redshift components of the Hubble constant.
The Cosmos must be much older and larger when non-trivial, non-doppler redshift is included since the calculated radius is proportional to the age of the cosmos. If most or all the redshift is non-doppler and the CMB is the ambient temperature of the star lighted universe, as in the strong case presented by Marmet and Reber, then the universe is infinitely old, large and massive. I assume, for now, that some of the Hubble constant is doppler and that the cosmos slows in its rotation as it expands. The next section might be clearer after reading, Gravity, rosettes, binary systems and inertia.
Light will orbit with the tangent velocity, vt = c, at the radius of the Cosmos. We know that gravity deflects light from numerous cases of gravitational lensing.
It is not too big a step to see that a deflection of light with one mass could become an orbit of light with a much greater mass.
m*c2 = G*m*M/r, multiplied by r.
This is rest energy equals gravitational energy and a clue that we are on the right track. m*c2 is energy, as is light. Only light and energy orbit at the perimeter, at a radius
of c*age, at c the speed of light. Everything else orbits, within the perimeter, at less than the speed of light.
Orbiting light makes this a black hole. One could see out of our Cosmos because light can get in, but light can't escape from our Cosmos so it would be black from the outside.