The dynamic case for an expanding spinning

black hole universe modified 20110926

black hole universe modified 20110926

Rosman, North Carolina USA

john.erich.ebner@gmail.com

http://blackholeformulas.com/

26 September 2011

Abstract and purpose. We explore a simple classical model of the universe in dynamic equilibrium. Our purpose is to solve the problems of the flat rotation curves of galaxies, prevalence of dark matter in galaxy dynamics and uniformity of the cosmic microwave background. Wiki calls these "unsolved problems of physics." They are shown to be a consequence of this model of the dynamic universe. The age, radius, mass, expansion rate and density of the universe are unambiguously shown to apply to a black hole and are in the range of mainstream values frequently quoted.

Keywords. Spherical universe, black hole universe, rotating universe, black hole formulas, variable gravitational constant, cosmic microwave background, dark matter, flat rotation curves of galaxies.

Chapter 1 - The Dynamic Case

Chapter 2 - Black holes

Chapter 3 - Rotation of the Cosmos

Chapter 4 - Dark matter

Chapter 5 - Uniformity of the CMB

Introduction

Bohr's planetary atom and the ring electron are examples of tiny machines which illuminate matter. The realm of the
tiny machines was extended to the helical electromagnetic wave. Here we explore a simple classical model of the universe in dynamic equilibrium. It is a machine too. Joni Mitchell in
"The Circle Game" sees life as a carousel. Our Cosmos is also a carousel. We are looking out from the inside the carousel and as far as you can see, receding into the distance, are painted ponies. We
see the carousel expand as the painted ponies drift apart. Can we see the carousel rotate? Our telescopes haven't seen far enough, to see past the carousel, to see any
background against which it might rotate. We are still a ship sailing, on the ocean of the Cosmos, out of sight of land. We must use mechanics and the consistency of the picture painted by math, as
science has always done, to infer the rotation of the Cosmos from the rules of dynamics, observations of the CMB, alignment of the rotational axis of galaxies and the polarization of the quasars.
There is a lot of math detail so that the ideas are more accessible. The math is written to be copied into a spread sheet or calculator. One may reason as to its correctness. There is no one above you. You are the authority who must decide. The Cosmos has the radius, mass and density quoted for the observable universe. The Cosmos is an entity which rotates and expands with respect to something larger and outside itself. It is a subset of the universe. The universe is the totality of all things that exist and the source of the material for our Cosmos. Our Cosmos continues to expand and slow in its rotation according to the rules of dynamics.

- Chapter 1 - The Dynamic Case
- Hubble (age, radius and radial velocity)
- Orbiting light
- Mass of the Cosmos
- Cosmic vorticity
- Energy at the radius of the Cosmos
- Forces at the radius of the Cosmos
- Inside a fraction of the radius of the Cosmos.
- Density of the Cosmos
**Go to - Chapter 2 - Black hole universe**

Postulates or Assumptions

- Our
**observable universe**is an**entity**, a**dynamic unit**. Once you see the expanding spinning black hole universe as an entity as a dynamic unit, it has a more local personal character. You are a part of something. You no longer see it in isolation. It is a ball in play in a much larger game. The Cosmos is the universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole. The universe is the totality of all things. Cosmos deals with structure, it has more the clockwork dynamic quality which seems to fit an object of study better than the existential term universe. Here**Cosmos**will be the name preferred for our local dynamic unit. - It is
**rotating**and**blowing up**like a balloon but very slowly in relation to its size. Like a spinning ice skater slows her spin, by extending her arms, the spinning universe slows in its rotation while expanding.Click image to animate!Each circle is a cross section of the Cosmos at a different time. The triangle shows the way it expands and rotates. Light orbits at the perimeter of the Cosmos. As the Cosmos increases in size, light orbits farther out. Most observers would look out in any direction and see the Cosmos expanding faster at greater distances. This is a Hubble expansion. We rotate with respect to that which is very far away and is outside our dynamic unit. The length of the hypotenuse of the triangle **r**is the**radius of the Cosmos**. It is the velocity of light times the age of the Cosmos, at that particular time, or**r = c*age.**The hypotenuse expands and has a tangent velocity of the speed of light,**v = c.**The base of the triangle expands and rotates at its fixed fraction**fr**of the speed of light,**v = fr*c.**This**fraction "fr"**is the cosine of the triangle. We can see that a location, the circled point in the corner of the triangle, where we might be located, expands radially outward and rotates at a constant velocity, proportional to its fraction of the radius of the Cosmos according to the rules of dynamics. -
Every location within this Cosmos, has a
**constant tangent**and**radial velocity**which are**proportional**to its**radius**. Since the velocity is constant, the acceleration is zero, and no force and no power is required for it to continue on its journey.**Energy is conserved**. - A location
**spirals out**as the Cosmos expands and rotates. The location stays at the same constant**fraction**"**fr**" of the radius of the Cosmos**r = fr*c*age**and a constant velocity**v = fr*c**. Here**fr**at the location is**.7**and the velocity is,**v = fr*c = .7*c.**This is a Hubble expanding Cosmos.Click image to animate!. Everything spirals apart as the Cosmos grows and slows in its rotation. Spiral galaxies are no surprise if they are part of the Hubble expansion. The Cosmos rotates at*Everything spirals out***c**at a radius of**r = c*age**. Everything has the same tiny**angular velocity = v/r = c/(c*age) = fr*c/(fr*c*age) = 1/age = 2.11E-18_1/s**, radians per second. Age is the**age**of the**Cosmos**. Hubble's constant is also**1/age**.

Pluto orbits at**v = 4753_m/s**at a radius of**r = 5.913E12_m**. Pluto's angular velocity is**v/r = 4753_m/s / 5.913E12_m = 8.038E-10_1/s**, radians per second. The Cosmos rotates**831 million**times slower than Pluto. This tiny angular velocity will be very hard to detect. The angular velocity was larger in the past. It is changing with a very small**angular acceleration = -1/age**or radians per second squared.^{2}= -4.46E-36_1/s^{2} .*Our Cosmos has sufficient mass for light to orbit at its perimeter. Orbiting light or energy makes it a black hole universe*- From inside the void, left by the departing perimeter, we see the very nearly uniform microwave background radiation also known as the cosmic microwave background the
**CMB**which is low energy light or heat.The fact that the CMB appears uniform implies that we might be near the center of the CMB and the Cosmos, an unlikely occurrence, which we will revisit later. The glow of the CMB is dimming since the perimeter's area*The CMB comes from the thin spherical region where light orbits at the perimeter of the Cosmos. It is made uniform and emitted by photon-photon scattering.***4*pi*r**is proportional to the^{2}= 4*pi*c^{2}*age^{2}**age**and luminosity to^{2}**1/age**. The luminosity is decreasing at the same rate as the Cosmos is slowing down in its rotation and increasing in surface area. Its glow is also greatly reduced by the inverse square nature of radiation in its immense travel thru space. It can be described, by the equation for a sphere expanding at the speed of light, like the spherical wave front of an electromagnetic wave with a radius of^{2}**r = c*age**so that**x**but this is beyond the scope of our simple dynamics.^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}= c^{2}*age^{2}

Edwin Hubble determined from the linear Doppler red shift of galaxies that they are receding at a rate proportional to distance. It is called Doppler because of the familiar Doppler frequency shift of sound with the velocity of the sound source. Here the frequency shift is in the light toward the red with increasing velocity of recession. Think of a sine wave appearing stretched as it moves away. The peaks of the sine wave seem stretched farther apart as it moves away. There is a longer duration between the peaks as the sine wave moves away. The longer duration is the sum of the natural original duration between the peaks of the sine wave plus the duration between the peaks added by the recession of the sine wave. The sine wave seems to have a lower red shifted frequency. The sine wave is unchanged only our point of view and relative velocity has changed. Does space stretch? How could it? Space is empty. How could we see billions of light years with telescopes unless space is empty? Is it more likely that our point of view has changed or that space has changed by becoming stretched? Some people mistake abstraction for reality.

Edwin Hubble determined from the linear Doppler red shift of galaxies that the velocity of recession at a certain distance, divided by that distance is a constant. Hubble's constant,
**Ho**, is about **65 km/(s*Mpc),** kilometers per second per million parsecs. In smaller units, this is **2.11E-18_m/s per meter,** 2.11 times 10 to the minus 18 meters per
second per meter or **2.11E-18_1/s.** * Using these smaller more familiar units may lead you to wonder if the expansion is also local. Does the Hubble expansion extend to the galaxy, to the
solar system, to atoms? If it exists, was it missed because the size of the expansion is so small?* Hubble's constant has units of

Four examples are;

130_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/7.5 billion years

65_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/15 billion years

32.5_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/30 billion years

16.25_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/60 billion years

130_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/7.5 billion years

65_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/15 billion years

32.5_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/30 billion years

16.25_km/(s*Mpc) = 1/60 billion years

Binary star systems and galaxies show rotational Doppler red shift. The approaching star in a binary system is more blue and the receding star is more red. The approaching side of a galaxy is
more blue and the receding side of a galaxy is more red. The color change is due to velocity. Vera Rubin found that in many galaxies the velocity seen in the red shift spectrum in the rotation of the
galaxy does not follow Kepler's laws by decreasing with radius but stays the same at greater radius. The galaxies are said to have **flat rotation curves**. Radio telescopes extended these flat
rotation curves out to the dust clouds that orbit galaxies. We will extend these flat rotation curves even further when we look at an explanation of **dark matter**.

Non-Doppler red shift is red shift unrelated to the velocity of recession. The much hotter star in a binary system shows non-Doppler red shift. Since the binary stars are receding at a common velocity, the substantial non-Doppler red shift of the hotter star is not due to velocity. The sun also shows non-Doppler solar red shift. There is an unknown ratio between the Doppler and non-Doppler red shift components of Hubble's constant.

- If
**1/2**the Hubble constant is due to non-Doppler red shift then the Doppler Hubble constant should be,**32.5_km/(s*Mpc)**not**65_km/(s*Mpc)**and the Cosmos is**30 billion years old**not**15 billion years old**. - If
**3/4**the Hubble constant is due to non-Doppler red shift then the Doppler Hubble constant should be,**16.25_km/(s*Mpc)**and the Cosmos is**60 billion**not**15 billion years old**.

The Cosmos must be much older and larger when non-trivial, non-Doppler red shift is included since the calculated radius is proportional to the age of the Cosmos. If most or all of the red shift is non-Doppler and the CMB is the ambient temperature of the star lighted universe, as in the strong case presented by Marmet and Reber, then the universe is infinitely old, large and massive. I assume for now that some of the Hubble constant is Doppler and that the Cosmos slows in its rotation as it expands. The next section might be clearer after reading Gravity, rosettes, binary systems and inertia.

This is

This means that either

We see that the

gravitational force = G*Mc *m /r

Since

The orbital forces equal the orbiting energy divided by the radius of the Cosmos. The

**m *vt ^{2} /r = G*M *m /r^{2}**, the centrifugal force equals the gravitational force.

fr

If

.9

The gravitational energy = **G *M *m /r = c ^{3}*age/Mc *fr^{3}*Mc *m /(fr *c*age) = fr^{2}*m*c^{2}**The gravitational energy is constant if

The centrifugal force =

The gravitational force =

We see that the mass “

Density of the Cosmos

The density within a fraction of the radius of the Cosmos isfr

3*Mc/(4*pi*c

References

- Unsolved problems of physics @ http://www.answers.com/topic/unsolved-problems-in-physics#Cosmology_and_Astronomy
- Bohr's planetary atom @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/BohrAtom.html
- Ring electron @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/RingElectron.html
- Helical electromagnetic waves @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/helicalelectromagneticwaves.html
- Triangle graphic gif @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/dctri.10.gif
- Spiral graphic gif @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/dcconccirc.10.gif
- Hubble @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble%27s_law
- Age of the universe @ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/RachelHoover.shtml
- Radius of the universe @ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2002/CarmenBissessar.shtml
- Non-Doppler red shift @ http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/hubble/index.html
- Binary system and solar non-Doppler red shift @ http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/chromosphere/index.html
- Marmet and Reber @ http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/universe/universe.html
- Gravity theory @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/gravity.html
- Mass of the universe @ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2006/KristineMcPherson.shtml
- New Scientist @ http://space.newscientist.com/article/mg19425994.000-axis-of-evil-a-cause-for-cosmic-concern.html
- Goodness in the axis of evil @ http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0802/0802.3229v2.pdf
- Sloan study @ http://arxiv.org/astro-ph/0703325
- WMAP data @ http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0605325
- Quasars @ http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0507274v1
- Density of the universe @ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/ChristinaCheng.shtml