Chapter 2 - Black hole universe modified 20110925

Introduction

There are two ways of defining a black hole and two black hole formulas. The original black hole definition goes back centuries where **Go back to - Chapter 1 - Introduction**- Chapter 2 - Black hole universe
- Energy in orbit black holes
- Expanding black holes
- Variable G
- G increases with time while gravitational force decreases with time
- Black hole density
- Cosmic density
- Merging black holes
- Panspermia
- Appendix - Review of traditional black holes
**Go to Chapter 3 - Rotation of the Cosmos**

The orbiting energy equals the gravitational energy. If

All the terms cancel, telling us that our Cosmos is a black hole.

If

- For a
**ten solar mass**black hole or**1.99E31_kg, vr = 3.12E-14_m/s**

- For a
**billion solar mass**black hole or**1.99E39_kg, vr = 3.12E-6_m/s**. This expands at**98_m/year**.

- For a
**9.61E22 solar mass**black hole or**1.91E53_kg, the mass of the Cosmos Mc, vr=299792458_m/s = c**

The gravitational force was stronger in the past.

We take

Four examples of black hole density using the mass formula;

ten solar mass = 1.47E18_kg/m

five solar mass = 5.90E18_kg/m

1.4 solar mass = 7.52E19E19_kg/m

1.4 solar mass = 6.6E25_kg/m

These are in the range of the density of a neutron star or nuclear density of

The mass of a proton or hydrogen atom is

While we would expect to see an approaching object to be seen as blue-shifted on the outside of our Cosmos, an approaching black hole emits no light, as all its perimeter light is in orbit. We would only see an approaching black hole when it merged with our own and suddenly appeared inside the perimeter of our Cosmos.

Little ones merge to make big ones. Two soap bubbles merge to make a larger soap bubble. In eggland, two eggs touch. Their shells merge much like soap bubbles merge. Their contents merge. Where there was two eggs, there is now one larger egg with two merged yokes. Over time, there is a very big egg with many yokes merged together. The yokels, being unaware of the mechanics of merging, make up odd stories of their creation and their importance to the creator.

There are groupings of mass in space so great, that gravity in the age of the Cosmos, would be inadequate for their formation from hydrogen gas. These are called large-scale structure. An example is the Sloan Great Wall. Their great mass should have been reflected in the observed inhomogeneities in the CMB, if the conventional theory is right. The merging of black holes, does however, explain these structures. The smaller black hole has a much higher density. The merged contents are enclosed in a much larger volume. From within, one sees only the merged contents. The smaller black hole leaves behind a higher residual mass density, in the stretched out, merged contents, which is the artifact or footprint of their merging.

**M/r = mass/radius = c ^{2}/G = 1.35E27_kg/m
radius = r = mass *G/c^{2}surface area = mass^{2} *4*pi* G^{2}/c^{4}volume = mass^{3} *4*pi*G^{3}/(3*c^{6})
density = mass /volume = 3*c^{6}/(mass^{2} *4*pi*G^{3})**

Two times mass equals; two times radius, four times surface area, eight times volume, density divided by four, and two times vr.

**Spherical caps of merging spheres:** See the figure above.

A spherical cap is a part cut off a sphere. When two spheres merge they create a lense shaped merged region. The volume of the lense shaped merged region includes twice the volume of the spherical caps of each sphere. The volume of a spherical cap is,

**1/3*pi*r ^{3}*(3-fr)*fr^{2}, with fr,** being the fraction of r, that is the height of the cap. The volume of a sphere equal to four spherical caps would be

When the spherical caps of merging black holes of the same size reach .6527 of their radius, the volume and the mass of the merged portions satisfies the mass/radius formula for a black hole.

The new velocity distribution in the merged black hole will cause all the orbits to relocate over time but these are small acceleration forces in a low density Cosmos like our own. Light and energy will eventually occupy a circular orbit at the new now larger radius of the black hole. The masses within will seek their own new orbits. The acceleration at the edge of the Cosmos is

There was a super nova relatively near our solar system around the time that the Earth formed. It left the Earth with its radioactive materials. It would not be surprising if it also left the Earth seeded with life in the form of rocks with embedded bacteria or spores from the nova stars solar system.

There are two ways of defining a black hole and two black hole formulas. In the traditional black hole

If the escape velocity only

The centrifugal force equals twice the gravitational force, so light can not be restrained to an orbit.

Using escape velocity has problems with the fixed velocity of light,

**.5*m*vr ^{2} = G*m*M/r**, kinetic energy equals gravitational energy

If

If

Other characteristics of the traditional black hole are:

**M/r = c ^{2}/(2*G) = 6.73E26_kg/m
c^{2}*r/(G*M) = 2**

density = mass /volume =

Two times mass equals two times radius, four times surface area, eight times volume and density divided by four.

Energy in orbit black holes

Energy in orbit black holes are The mass/radius ratio of traditional black holes is half that of energy in orbit black holes. This difference may be detectable with the measurement of orbital periods of x-ray emitting clouds that orbit some black holes in binary systems of a black hole and star as reported, in this edited excerpt from May 12, 2001, Science News.

"The Rossi satellite detected X rays that flicker 300 times per second, from the region around GRO J1655-40. Astronomers would expect this from a blob of hot gas orbiting 64 km from the 6.3 solar mass black hole. Rossi also recorded an X-ray signal flickering 450 times per second. A radiating blob of gas orbiting a black hole is like a lighthouse beacon sweeping past Earth hundreds of times per second, suggests Strohmayer. The closer the blob gets to the black hole, the faster it orbits. The most rapid oscillation detected by Rossi can best be explained by blobs of gas that are orbiting 15 km nearer to the hole than indicated by the slower flickering, he says. The material could maintain itself at this closer distance only if the black hole spins, Strohmayer asserts."

References

- Traditional black holes @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/GSJBlackHoles.html#Appendix
- Hubble @ http://blackholeformulas.com/files/Introduction.html#Hubble (age, radius, radial velocity)
- Nuclear density @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_density
- Neutron star mass @ http://www.lsw.uni-heidelberg.de/users/mcamenzi/NS_Mass.html
- Neutron star radius @ http://www.astro.washington.edu/users/ben/a510/NSTARS.new.html
- Density of the universe @ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/ChristinaCheng.shtml
- Photon-photon scattering @ http://www.hep.ucl.ac.uk/opal/gammagamma/gg-tutorial.html
- Large scale structure of the Cosmos @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large-scale_structure_of_the_Cosmos
- Sloan great wall @http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sloan_Great_Wall
- Inhomogeneities in the CMB @ http://www.newton%20physics.on.ca/BIGBANG/Bigbang.html
- Panspermia @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panspermia
- Planetary exposions @ http://metaresearch.org/solar%20system/eph/eph2000.asp
- Rossi satellite @ http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20010512/toc.asp