Electric Gravity

2 March 2013
Abstract and purpose
We demonstrate that a theoretical electric force can model gravitation in calculations. This force may model the Earth in orbit if the electric force equals the gravitational force and if the charge of the Earth and Sun are of opposite polarity. The large-scale static-like behavior of gravity can be described on the microscopic scale, where matter is treated statistically as a collection of dynamic atoms and molecules. We show Bohr's hydrogen atoms, electron-proton dipoles with elliptical orbits, develop charged ends. These charged ends attract other nearby charged dipoles with van der Waal's forces which cause atoms to stick together in their atomic arrays. The pulsed force created by the momentary interaction of these rotating pairs of dipoles when they align in-series causes gravitation, centrifugal force and inertia. There is a slight inequality in attraction and repulsion between the rotating dipoles. The attractive force between unlike charges is slightly larger than the repulsive forces between like charges. The pulsed nature of these very short in-line in-series interactions explains the weakness of gravity compared to the electrostatic force. Sometimes when you model nature, the model speaks with clarity to the questions that you ask of nature.
Key Words
Electrostatic gravity, electrodynamic gravity, gravity, electric gravity, gravitational force, statistical gravity, van der Waal's force, elliptical orbits of atoms, polarized atoms, electrostatic dipoles, gravitational refraction of light
Table of Contents
I. Static charges can model gravity
  1. Introduction
  2. Ratio of electrostatic to gravitational forces
  3. Gravitational charges
  4. Charges required to keep the Earth in orbit
  5. Ruling out the obvious static charges
II. Dynamic charges in dipoles
  1. Bohr atom as a binary system
  2. Electron and proton binary atom with elliptical orbits
  3. Quantum silliness
  4. Atoms which have elliptical orbits are very polarized
  5. Ellipsoid atoms
  6. Polarization in the Sun and planets
  7. Centrifugal force is parallel to the dipoles
  8. Loop forces are perpendicular to the dipoles
  9. On a planetary scale looking only at orbital forces
  10. Maynard L. Hill and atmospheric electricity
  11. Gravitational refraction of light
  12. Precession of atoms into ellipsoids
  13. Atoms modeled as bipolar ellipsoids and spheres
  14. Atoms which have elliptical orbits are very polarized
III. Pulsed forces between atoms
  1. Gravity is caused by pulsed in-line forces
  2. Ellipse definitions
  3. The short interaction times of pulsed forces causes the weakness of gravity
  4. Circular rotations
  5. Does this answer the big questions?
  6. Antimatter
  7. Out-of-phase matter
  8. Shielding of Mass and Inertia
  9. Appendix

We simplify and imagine nature to be composed of machines which we can understand. We use these machines by analogy to explain the behavior of nature. Maxwell said, "Using mechanical illustrations toassist the imagination, but not toaccount for the phenomena." The Cosmos is a machine where gravitational force equals centrifugal force. The electromagnetic wave, Bohr's planetary atom and the ring electron are examples of tiny machines which illuminate matter. Pushing gravity has a rich and interesting history but is an unlikely mechanism to explain gravity because of pushing gravities huge continuous energy demand. This paper might follow Gravity, rosettes and inertia. We will see how gravitational force equals electric force in equations. The tiny machines which illuminate gravity are electrostatic dipoles which are like Bohr atoms, charged electron and proton masses which orbit around their common center of gravity. We show that rotating dipole atoms with elliptical orbits develop charged ends. These charged ends attract other nearby charged dipoles with van der Waal's forces which cause atoms to stick together in their atomic arrays. The pulsed force created by the momentary interaction of these rotating pairs of dipoles when they align in-series causes gravitation, centrifugal force and inertia. Electric gravity also has a long history. This paper by Assis describes his work and Faraday's experiments along these lines. Gravity based on moving electrostatic dipoles, provides a clear plausible mechanism for how gravity works, with forces in equilibrium and no continuous energy demand. Moving electrostatic dipoles also explains much about why gravity works. Heisenberg said the position and orbits of the electron in the hydrogen atom can not be observed and therefore they should be set aside as fruitless ideas. He focused only on observable quantities of spectral frequency and intensity. We will see that these currently unobservable qualities of the hydrogen atom are exactly what are needed to explain gravity.

I. Static charges can model gravitation
We will look first at the theory that gravity is caused by static charges. It is interesting how well this possibility fits the gravitational equations. Fc = ce2/(4*pi*e0*r2), This is the electrostatic force between two charges with a charge ce at a separation of r meters. ce is the charge of the electron or proton. e0 is the permittivity of vacuum.
Fg = G*me*mp/r2, This is the gravitational force between an electron and a proton at a separation of r meters. G is the gravitational constant. me and mp are the mass of the electron and proton.
Fc/Fg = ce2/(4*pi*e0*G*me*mp) = 2.269E39, This is the huge ratio of electrostatic to gravitational forces. Small charges produce big forces. Any theory of gravity must explain the smallness of gravity.
Balancing electrostatic and gravitational forces
ce2/(4*pi*e0*r2) = G*kg2/r2, the electrostatic force between two opposite charges equals the gravitational force between two masses.
(a*s)2/(4*pi*e0) = G*kg2, The forces are equal at any distance. They are both inverse square forces. The r2 cancel. Replace ce with the more general a*s, amps*seconds for the charge, so the equation can work with any charge and mass. a*s = Coulombs = Farads*volts.
(4*pi*e0*G).5 = 86.17E-12_a*s/kg, this is the gravitational charge per kilogram, coulombs/kg. There are 6.2415E18_charges/(a*s), charges per amp per second.
a*s = kg*(4*pi*e0*G).5, the gravitational charge equals the mass*(4*pi*e0*G).5

msun = 1.9884E30_kg, mass of the Sun.
mearth = 5.9722E24_kg, mass of the Earth.
a*s = kg*(4*pi*e0*G).5, the gravitational charge equals the mass*(4*pi*e0*G).5
gcsun = msun*(4*pi*e0*G).5 = 1.713E20_a*s, the gravitational charge of the Sun.
gcearth = mearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5 = 5.146E14_a*s, the gravitational charge of the Earth.
Sun and Earth gravitation
msun*mearth*G/au2, the gravitational force between the Sun and Earth. An au astronomical unit is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun.
msun*mearth*(4*pi*e0*G) /(4*pi*e0*au2), multiplied by 4*pi*e0/(4*pi*e0)
msun*(4*pi*e0*G).5 *mearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5 /(4*pi*e0*au2), factored (4*pi*e0*G) into two square roots.
gcsun*gcearth/(4*pi*e0*au2), electrostatic force using gravitational charge.
1.713E20_a*s *5.146E14_a*s/(4*pi*e0*(149.598E9_m)2) = 3.5401E22_kg*m/s2
1.98843E30_kg *5.9722E24_kg *G/(149.598E9_m)2 = 3.5414E22_kg*m/s2,
The Coulomb forces calculated using gravitational charge and Newtonian gravity calculated with masses are the same. Gravitational charge and mass are equivalent. The force is the same only the units used to calculate the force change.
Sun and Earth centrifugal force
mearth*vearth2/dbcearth = msun*vsun2/dbcsun = 3.55E22_kg*m/s2, there are two equal centrifugal forces unchanged by using gravitational charge instead of mass. dbc is the distance to the barycenter, the center of mass of the Earth-sun system
mearth*vearth2/dbcearth =
mearth *(4*pi*e0*G).5 *vearth2/(dbcearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5),
multiplied by (4*pi*e0*G).5/(4*pi*e0*G).5
gcearth *vearth2/(dbcearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5), substituted for gcearth = mearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5

msun *vsun2/dbcsun =
msun *(4*pi*e0*G).5 *vsun2/(dbcsun*(4*pi*e0*G).5),
multiplied by (4*pi*e0*G).5/(4*pi*e0*G).5
gcsun *vsun2/(dbcsun*(4*pi*e0*G).5), substituted for gcsun = msun*(4*pi*e0*G).5
Gravitational acceleration
mearth*G/rearth2 = 9.79822007_m/s2, gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth.
rearth = 6378000_m.
mearth*(4*pi*e0*G) /(4*pi*e0*rearth2), multiplied by 4*pi*e0/(4*pi*e0)
mearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5*(4*pi*e0*G).5 /(4*pi*e0*rearth2), factored (4*pi*e0*G) into two square roots.
gcearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5/(4*pi*e0*rearth2) = 9.79822007_m/s2, substituted for gcearth = mearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5.
gcearth/(rearth2)*(G/(4*pi*e0)).5, collected terms.
gcearth/(rearth2)*.77448_m3/(a*s3) = 9.7979_m/s2, since (G/(4*pi*e0)).5 = .77448_m3/(a*s3),
The electrostatic acceleration of the Earth at the surface of the Earth, using gravitational charge is the same as the gravitational acceleration using mass. Calculations using charge or mass produce the same gravitational accelerations.
Sun and Earth gravitational energy
msun*mearth*G /au, gravitational energy using mass.
msun*mearth*(4*pi*e0*G) /(4*pi*e0*au), multiplied by 4*pi*e0/(4*pi*e0)
msun*(4*pi*e0*G).5 *mearth*(4*pi*e0*G).5 /(4*pi*e0*au), factored (4*pi*e0*G) into two square roots.
gcsun*gcearth/(4*pi*e0*au), gravitational energy using gravitational charge.
1.713E20_a*s *5.146E14_a*s /(4*pi*e0*149.598E9_m) = 5.2975E33_kg*m2/s2, gravitational energy using gravitational charge.
G*1.98843E30_kg*5.9722E24_kg/149.598E9_m = 5.2978E33_kg*m2/s2, gravitational energy using mass. All the electrons in the Sun and Earth repel each other. All the protons in the Sun and Earth repel each other. All the electrons in the Sun and Earth attract all the protons in the Sun and Earth. All the atoms in the Sun and Earth are polarized in this way which might cause a charge imbalance force.
gcearth/(charge per electron) = charges
5.146E14_a*s/(1.602E-19_a*s/charge) = 3.212E33_charges, the number of electron charges required for the Earth. Since the Sun shines on half the Earth, area = 4*pi*r2/2, there are 1.256E19_charges/m2 required on the Sun lit side of the Earth. This is 2.013_amp/m2 but the solar output is 1366_volts*amps/m2 = watts/m2. This is more than enough charge for electrostatic gravity. We must remember however, the gravitational charge is spread throughout the volume of the Earth not just on half its surface area.
charges * mass/charge = mass of electrons
3.212E33_charges * 9.109E-31_kg/charge = 2926_kg of electrons
There are 6.241E18_charges/(a*s), charges per amp per second. The surprisingly small charge of 2926_kg of electrons when balanced by the same amount of opposite proton charge in the Sun will provide the tensile force to keep the Earth in orbit without any ongoing power requirements. Small charges produce big forces. Compare this charge disparity of 2926_kg of electrons that is required for electrostatic gravity with the solar output of millions of kilograms of protons and electrons in the solar wind. The solar output on the surface of the Earth, the Earth's insolation is 1366 watts per square meter in space or a total of 1.75E17 watts. The dark night side of the Earth has no such power inputs. There would be no solar inputs to a region during an eclipse. This suggest powerful currents and polarizations. The solar output or solar wind could provide the slight charge imbalance necessary for gravity, but we will look at it from another perspective. Charge imbalance is everywhere; in bonding of atoms, in chemistry and in dielectric and deformable dielectric materials. One might extract a current from a plate heated on one side or a solar cell or a plant in the Sun. Does a tiny current flow from a plant in the Sun to the ground. Does a plant need a ground? Not the ground. Does photosynthesis leave a residual charge on an algae or on the Sun lit side of the Earth? Life does have electricity. Electricity flows in circuits. Does it seem amazing or absurd that the electricity of life might affect gravity? Breathing works because oxygen is a good electron receptor. Oxygen completes the circuit like a gaseous battery. Before oxygen became common on the Earth, life used several mineral electron receptors, like iron and sulfur compounds, to fuel its reactions. These life forms are still common in low oxygen environments. Chemical reactions and bonding are based on charge and its flow which is electricity. All of these might leave different charges on the day and night side of the Earth. This very slight differential charge throughout a planet is what is required for electrostatic gravity.
The force of gravity on the Earth can't be like the simple charge on a capacitor. I have a weight of 200 pounds, 90.2 Newtons and a mass of 9.25 kilograms.
mass *(4*pi*e0*G).5 = 9.25_kg*8.617E-11_a*s/kg = 7.97E-10_a*s, my gravitational charge. This is around 800 pico_a*s. This is for a static charge. We can quickly rule out static charge as follows,
7.97E-10_Farad *1_volt = 7.97E-10_a*s. Someone would have noticed if a tiny 800 pico farad capacitor on being charged to 1_volt would gain the weight of 200 pounds. Gravity being caused entirely by static charges is ruled out. Our answer can not be only the static charge of a capacitor.

II. Dynamic charges in moving dipoles
We will look for a dynamic charge imbalance in the atoms themselves. This is a search for the mechanics and oscillating mechanism of the atom. We seek the geometry of Bohr's planetary atom that allows it to store charge and act like a capacitor when pulled and pushed by the charges in other masses or when accelerated or when buffeted by Brownian motion. We must seek a dynamic charge somewhere in the constantly moving oscillating charges and reversing dipole forces of the electron-proton dipole pair in the atom. We will use the machinery of rotating dipoles because it is so easy to see their momentary in-line alignment. But clearly, the random Brownian movement or thermal motion of the atoms also provides obvious opportunites for occasional momentary in-line alignment of dipoles. See Schrodinger's, What is life? Occasional forces is all that is required for gravity which is 2E39 times weaker than the static attraction of opposite charges. When atoms become ellipsoids the charge and the mass of the electron and proton become more separated. Work is done and energy is stored in the electric field. As the electron and proton follow their elliptical paths, their orbital and radial velocity and location of their charges varies. The direction of their plus to minus dipole charges, their polarization and forces reverse as in click!figure. It is this directional non-equal reversing dipole force which attracts us. The cause of gravity is atomic and dynamic. It is only at macroscopic scale that statistical gravity appears as a static force. Thus, the two names in the previous title of this paper, Electrostatic Gravity or Electrodynamic Gravity, which has been simplified to Electric Gravity.

We see two binary hydrogen atoms. Their two rotating electron-proton dipoles line-up momentarily twice during each in-phase orbit. Binary systems can generalize Bohr's planetary atom with an unmoving center proton to a system where electron-proton dipoles rotate around their common center of gravity producing concentric red-electron and blue-proton currents with green magnetic fields around those currents producing
forces due to moving charge. We have rotating electron-proton dipoles with a magnetic dipole centered on the electron and proton. Dipoles are tiny machines which illuminate much of nature. Forces in equilibrium hold the atom together. The centrifugal force equals the sum of the Coulomb force between the charges plus the magnetic force between the electron and proton. We have both pulsed magnetic and Coulomb forces when the attracting electron-proton dipoles in the attracting atoms align momentarily in-series like in this figure. It is the sum of these two pulsed forces which create gravity and inertia. Each Bohr hydrogen atom contains the proper amount of energy to agree with the Balmer series hydrogen spectral lines while also agreeing with the energy of ionization. When the hydrogen atom is ionized the electron-proton pair separate and absorb energy. Work is done to pull them apart. When the electron-proton pair merge to become a hydrogen atom they give off energy.

A binary system with orbiting charged particles has wavelike orbits.
  • The red dots are electrons and the blue dots are protons orbiting on their circular paths.
  • They orbit together on opposite sides of the center of mass of the system.
  • The orbital period of the proton and electron pair is the same. They are a dipole.
  • The red and blue sine waves are an edge view of the orbital plane and currents traced out by the electron and proton pair as they move across the page on a helical path like a spring on a string.
  • There are wave, particle, planetary and dipole descriptions of atoms.
  • Looking at a point, in the orbital plane as they orbit, would show alternating charges and dipole forces at the frequency that the electron and proton orbit and pass in front of each other. Blue-red-blue-red or plus-minus-plus-minus at 6.6E15_hertz as the dipoles reverse direction at a wavelength of 45.5E-9_m in the extreme ultraviolet.
  • ve/(2*pi*re) = frequency = 6.58327E15_1/s, ve is the velocity of the electron and re is the radius of the electron orbit.
  • c/frequency = wavelength = 45.54E-9_m. This is in the extreme ultraviolet, EUV. Here is a reference to the Solar Dynamics Observatory, (SDO) "EUV wavelengths range between 50 and 5 nanometers, which coincide with the characteristic absorption wavelengths of inner-shell electrons in the atoms that compose matter. As a result, EUV light directed onto a standard mirror or lens at normal incidence is absorbed rather than reflected, making it undetectable. For this reason, EUV light is also absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, which is why telescopes must travel to space to study the light emitted from the Sun."

  • A distant static charge would only see the oscillating high frequency plus-minus-plus-minus merged to neutrality. This excludes gravity from being caused by the interaction of dipoles and static charges.
  • A distant in-phase rotating dipole would however experience Coulomb, magnetic and gravitational forces.
The stationary unmoving center proton and orbiting electron view of the planetary atom conceals their binary wavelike behavior which the red and blue sine waves emphasize.
Click figure to animate! Electron and proton binary atom with circular orbits
  • The dipole of the electron and proton pair in their orbits make rings of charge or currents.
  • These orbiting charges are electron and proton torroidal currents which orbit the long way around the torus or ring.
  • We have helical poloidal magnetic fields which orbit around the toroidal currents, looping the short way around the torus through the hole like the wires on torroidal transformers.
  • The magnetic field points out of the page along the axis of rotation.
  • mass proton/mass electron = velocity electron/velocity proton = orbital radius electron/orbital radius proton = 1836 if to scale.
  • There is a uniform charge density. The velocity of the electron and proton charge along their orbital path around the center of mass is uniform.
  • The charge per radian of the electron and proton on their binary orbital path are constant and equal since they have the same angular velocity.
  • The radial distance between the charges is constant.
  • This is a charge neutral binary atom confined to orbit in a plane. It is not the sphere of the atom which we see in scanning tunneling microscope pictures.
Tokamaks and spheromaks and ring electrons have torroidal currents and helical poloidal magnetic fields.
  • The barycenter, the center of mass, is at the common focus of the red electron and blue proton ellipses.
  • Using Kepler's law, the charge points or dots are separated by equal periods of time and each sweep out equal area triangles in equal periods of time along their elliptical orbits. A text file which can be opened with Basic calculates the elliptical radii and angles.
  • These ellipses are very polarized. The charges and masses are not concentric.
  • The velocity of elliptical orbits slow down as they move toward apogee.
  • Since they spend more time near apogee at a slower speed the charge and mass density is non-uniform and is greater farther out.
  • The electron is on the left, apogee side of its orbit, 17/23 of the time, so the left side is more negative. It is on the right, perigee side of its orbit, 6/23 of the time.
  • The proton is on the right, apogee side of its orbit, 17/23 of the time, so the right side is more positive.
  • These charged elliptical rings precess into ellipsoids like beads rolling on a string. Their charged poles would attract the opposite charged poles of similarly polarized ellipsoidal atoms.
This is the origin of van der Waal's forces. Can you see how there is a concentration of charge and mass along the long axis of the ellipsoid? Can you see how a chain of these ellipsoids, with their oppositely charged ends, would stick together like magnetic beads? Can you see how there is a concentration of charge and mass along the line of a long chain of these ellipsoids?
Source of the dipoles
The best reference on dipoles is by Tatum. This is a quote from chapter 3, page 5.
"How may a dipole moment be induced in an uncharged body? Well, if the unchargedbody is metallic (as in the gold leaf electroscope), it is quite easy. In a metal, there are numerous free electrons, not attached to any particular atoms, and they are free to wander about inside the metal. If a metal is placed in an electric field, the free electrons are attracted to one end of the metal, leaving an excess of positive charge at the other end. Thus a dipole moment is induced.

What about a nonmetal, which doesn’t have free electrons unattached to atoms? It may be that the individual molecules in the material have permanent dipole moments. In that case, the imposition of an external electric field will exert a torque on the molecules, and will cause all their dipole moments to line up in the same direction, and thus the bulk material will acquire a dipole moment. The water molecule, for example, has a permanent dipole moment, and these dipoles will align in an external field. This is why pure water has such a large dielectric constant.

But what if the molecules do not have a permanent dipole moment, or what if they do,but they cannot easily rotate (as may well be the case in a solid material)? The bulkmaterial can still become polarized, because a dipole moment is induced in the individualmolecules, the electrons inside the molecule tending to be pushed towards one end of themolecule.Or a molecule such as CH4, which is symmetrical in the absence of an externalelectric field, may become distorted from its symmetrical shape when placed in anelectric field, and thereby acquire a dipole moment.

Thus, one way or another, the imposition of an electric field may induce a dipole momentin most materials, whether they are conductors of electricity or not, or whether or not theirmolecules have permanent dipole moments.

If two molecules approach each other in a gas, the electrons in one molecule repel theelectrons in the other, so that each molecule induces a dipole moment in the other. Thetwo molecules then attract each other, because each dipolar molecule finds itself in theinhomogeneous electric field of the other. This is the origin of the van der Waal's forces."

An external electric field will exert a torque around one of three axes of the dipole. An electron-proton dipole may orbit around a second perpendicular axis. Then the dipole will precess around a third perpendicular axis like a gyroscope or a like bead rolling on a string, imparting a sherical structure on the dipole or to an atom. See Precession.

has attributed the van der Waal's forces and the Casimir forces to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle; the more certain we are of where something is, the less certain we are about where it is heading. Quantum field theory holds that empty space, the vacuum, is fizzing with short-lived particle-anti-particle pairs according to the uncertainty principle. The shorter the time the pair exists, the greater energy the pair may impart to the vacuum so very short lived pairs have near infinite energy. This means that one calculates the energy density of the vacuum as near infinite, which many do, which is silly, of course. The actual energy density in a vacuum is near zero. Particle-anti-particle pairs annihilate each other transforming their mass into energy. Electron-positron pairs annihilate each other producing gamma rays. Particle-anti-particle pairs are only created out of energy, not vacuum, if there is enough energy for mass pair creation, as there is in a particle accelerator. Energy is conserved. Nothing is created out of nothing.
  • The red and blue waves are an edge view of the elliptical orbital plane and currents traced out by the electron and proton dipole as they move across the page on a helical-elliptical path.
  • With unaccelerated motion of atoms there is a balance between the charges or charge neutrality which is absent when they follow a curved path or are accelerated.
  • With a circular orbit, the orbital velocity and momentum are constant and there is no radial velocity or momentum.
  • With elliptical orbits we see a variable orbital and radial velocity, a variable orbital and radial momentum and the electron and proton spend more of their time far out on the apogee side of their orbits.
  • I recommend the orbit simulator websites of Dunn,Burtle and Koppen.

Atoms are polarized by forces or on a curved path
  • The red and blue sine waves are an edge view of the orbital plane traced out by the electron and proton pair as they move around the red circles on a helical path like a spring on a string.
  • The axis of rotation and the center of mass of the electron-proton pair is along the ring path.
  • The protons are pushed to the outside by the centrifugal force caused by following a curved path.
  • The electrons travel farther on the inside of the ring path, on the apogee side of their orbit, where they are pinched together. They are like a bent helical spring which is pinched together on the inside of the red circles.
  • They each trace the surface of a torus which is somewhat stretched in the radial direction because of their elliptical cross section.
  • The helical path of the electron and proton is a toroidal current path with a superimposed helical poloidal magnetic field path. We have a helix on a helix.
  • A cross section along the red circle ring path would show ellipses.
  • There is a charge density imbalance between the inside and outside of the rings. The atoms are polarized by forces.

Rotating dipoles - Click figure to animate!
The red rings are the spherical shells of atoms. Atoms in scanning tunneling microscopes look like neatly stacked spheres. This shows a group of atoms at equilibrium. They are held together by electrostatic bipolar van der Waal's forces which are weak in gases, stronger in liquids and stronger still in solids. The dipoles consist of blue dots which are protons and the red dots which are electrons. The dipoles rotate and are in phase like the hands of two clocks. Huygens reported in 1657 that the forces between pendulum clocks on a shelf caused their synchronization. Likewise, we expect the powerful forces between series dipoles to be synchronized like a series of compasses. The net force on a distant static charge would average to zero as these dipoles rotate. The net force on a distant rotating in-phase dipole would be electrical and gravitational.
The blue lines show a few of the many ways the in phase atomic dipoles may line up producing van der Waal's force. It is clear why so many materials shear off in a plane and why crystals cleave in certain planes. The atoms in this figure prefer to make hexagons. This figure shows the profoundly exaggerated effect of -
  • the push and pull of the electrons and protons in a mass,
  • or an acceleration,
  • or an electric field,
  • or a current,
  • or a centrifugal force to the left,
  • or a pressure from above and below like a gravitational force.
  • The atoms are far from equilibrium, polarized, bipolar and ellipsoid.
  • All the dipoles are in phase like the hands of two clocks.
  • The proton and electron orbit around one focus of the ellipse, shown as a blue dot.
  • The opposite charges of the negative ends and positive ends of the ellipsoid atoms produce attractive forces.
  • The atoms stick together like magnetic beads.
  • The opposite charges of the atoms, which hold them together, are almost hidden within the mass. Only the charged outside ends are apparent.
  • The net charge would be zero if the mass is in a homogeneous electric field but the electric field is not homogeneous. It is greater near the source of the electric field.
  • There is an electrical gradient.
  • The electric field of the dipoles decreases quickly with the inverse cube of the distance between the dipoles but since the dipoles are close to each other all are polarized. They act like a mass of polarized dielectric or charge inside a capacitor.
  • Charges produce inverse square Coulomb forces.
  • Large currents cause exploding wires as charge separation cause the atoms to elongate beyond the elastic limit of the material of which they are composed.
Electron and proton binary atoms or dipoles force lines - Click figure to animate!
  • Two in-phase electron and proton dipole pairs in a series experience forces.
  • The red electron and blue proton dots are the instantaneous location of the charges as the charge pairs orbit.
  • The green lines connect the forces between the right proton and the left electron.
  • The pink lines connect the forces between the left proton and the right electron.
  • The green lines are longer so the charges are further apart and the forces are weaker than the pink lines where the charges are closer together and the forces are stronger.
  • The left proton is more strongly attracted to the right electron along the pink lines than the right proton is attracted to the left electron along the green lines.
  • The pair of repulsive electrons like the pair of repulsive protons stay the same distance apart, both dipoles are in phase, as they follow parallel elliptical paths so the repulsive forces are constant. The attractive forces are variable but they are continuous and not pulsed.
  • The dots along their paths on each ellipse are separated here by 41 equal intervals of time. 36 intervals are on the apogee side of the center of mass and 5 intervals are on the perigee side of the center of mass.
  • The charges spend more time on the apogee half of the ellipse so the apogee dots are closer together than the perigee side of the center of mass in both the electron and proton ellipses.
  • The apogee end of the orbits are more highly charged.
  • The left end of this atom pair is negatively charged and the right end is positively charged.
  • These atoms could not stick together without atomic eccentricity and the charge polarity it creates. This is the origin of the van der Waal's force.
  • The vertical and oscillating components of the forces cancel so we are left with only horizontal forces along the center line.
Series dipoles - The left end of this series is negatively charged and the right end is positively charged
The ends of the ellipses are highly oppositely charged. They stick together like magnetic beads. The ellipses precess into ellipsoids, along the long axis, like beads rotating on a string. The internal electron-proton forces hold an atom together.The external electron-proton forces hold the string of atoms together.
The atoms are bipolar ellipsoids or dipoles. They stick together in clumps, rows, columns, loops and rings. They experience tensile and compressive forces. There are linear polarizations perpendicular to an axis of rotation as in the centrifugal force of a rotating or orbiting object. There are circular polarization as in compressive forces like gravity. These dipoles, atoms or molecules have opposite ends which are slightly polarized or slightly oppositely charged. This overly bold compact notation, for a very subtle effect, emphasizes their end charge and relationship to their neighbors. In the figures below, the opposite charges of the ends of the dipoles attract each other with tensile forces along a row. The opposite charges in neighbor atoms along columns also attract each other so the rows also experience compressive or flattening forces. This is the origin of the van der Waal's forces, the electrostatic glue that holds atoms into solids, liquids and gases. The Casimir force and its repulsive opposite quantum buoyancy are also due to van der Waal's forces.

Atoms respond to orbital or planetary rotation with a centrifugal force which is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. It is always directed away from that axis. The charges due to the centrifugal force are greatest at the equator where the dipole chains are longest, on each side of the axis of rotation.
The centrifugal force of rotation moves the proton slightly away from the center of mass of the atom and the axis of rotation. The electron and proton orbits in the atom are elliptical. The atoms are polarized in series and are attracted to their neighbors and the background charge of the Cosmos.

Electrostatic dipoles can make any shape possible for magnets. Dipoles can make loops just as well as magnets. The loops apply an obvious compressive force. The ends of the individual atomic dipoles tend to line up, opposite charge to opposite charge, around the planet in long dipole loops. The two spheres above attract each other in the same way as oppositely directed columns of magnets. Loops can attract or repel. They attract each other when their north poles point in opposite directions and the loops repel each other when their north poles point in the same direction. Dipole atoms or molecules demonstrate the circular polarizations and flattening of gravity in the figure above. There are no open ends on the closed dipole loops. They are loops that wrap around a planet. The dipole loops may extend into the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere and space.

  • C>G, orbital centrifugal force exceeds the orbital gravitational force. The atoms on the night side of the planet, facing away from the Sun, have a positive polarity. This polarization extends across the planet in a very long series dipole. This raises many questions about the solar wind and the plasmasphere of the Earth and any part they might play in electrostatic gravity.
  • G=C, gravity equals the orbital centrifugal force, along the orbit of the planet, near the axis of rotation and the day-night line of the planet. This is a neutral axis of equilibrium.
  • G>C, gravity is greater than centrifugal force. The Sun side of the planet has a weak slightly negative polarity.

The gravity on the surface of the planet far exceeds the gravity imposed by the Sun. The centrifugal force of rotation usually exceeds the orbital centrifugal force. See planetary data. There is a superposition of solar gravitation and orbital centrifugal force on top of the larger local gravitational force and local rotational centrifugal force. The charges and dipoles of the larger local forces tend to cancel out when seen from a distance. This leaves us with the long series dipoles and their forces seen above. These long series dipoles also extend above the surface into space.This is more complex than our original simple hypothesis of opposite charge in the Sun and planets causing gravity. The polarized atoms stick together in long rows, rather like magnetic beads making long dipoles. The Suns atoms are polarized in the same direction as the planets. The positive end of a row of atoms in the Sun is attracted to the negative end of a row of atoms in the first planet. The positive end of the row of atoms in the first planet is attracted to the negative end of a row of atoms in the second planet and so on to the other planets. These are series dipoles the width of the planets which can extend into space. These long series dipoles have large q*d products and proportionally large forces. The force on dipoles is proportional to the q*d product, the charge on the end of the dipole times the length of the dipole, and dE/dx the inhomogeneous electric field caused by similar dipoles in other planetary bodies.

This is from an article on his Electrostatic Autopilot, "The operating principle of the system are based on two key facets of atmospheric electricity that have been known for a very long time. One is Benjamin Franklin's demonstration in 1752 that lightning transfers large amounts of negative charge to the Earth. The other is Lord Kelvin's analogy, proposed in 1860, that the atmosphere is like a large capacitor where there is a highly conducting layer in the upper atmosphere that acts like a highly charged positive plate, while Earth acts as the negative plate of the capacitor. Through experiments we have shown that there are voltage levels within the atmosphere that are almost as smooth and horizontal as the equipotential planes seen in sketches in college text books describing the electric field between capacitor plates... The upper plate of the capacitor, typically charged to 350_Kv, we will assume resides sufficiently high to permit most air breathing vehicles to fly under it. The capacitor leaks. Based on 2.5E-12_A/m2 ... 15.6E6_electrons/m2*s an estimated 1800 amp... worldwide air-Earth conduction current, we can readily compute that a continuous 630_Mw flow of direct-current flow maintains this potential difference. ... Chalmers clearly says only that thunderstorms transfer negative charge to Earth. But where does the charge come from? Where is the d.c. generator? These questions need an answer."
A charged capacitor showing its dielectric material

Using this analogy, the surface of the Earth is at a negative potential on the left plate. The right plate is at a positive potential, as is the solar wind. Answering Maynard L. Hill's questions, the charges come from the Sun. The d.c. generator is the solar wind.This dipole paradigm of gravity is consistent with the index of refraction of gravitation suggested by Eddington in 1920 and currently with a series of papers by Ye and Lin, the authors of, "A Simple Optical Analysis of Gravitational Lensing." They assume that since only vacuum exists between the gravitational masses, vacuum is just a special optical medium which refracts light because of gravity. However, not usually being encumbered by quantum silliness, thinking the vacuum is a vacuum, I assume that the space between gravitational masses, the vacuum, is filled perhaps at a very low density - which is all that is required, with polarized molecules, atoms or dipoles. It should be noted that these dipoles could be part of the missing dark matter. Radio telescopes can detect the atomic hydrogen at 21_cm, if it is dense enough along their line of sight. Cold molecular hydrogen which is more stable and more common is unfortunately mostly invisible at radio wavelengths. See Marmet or Sky and Telescope. Most dipoles of cold molecular hydrogen are invisible to radio telescopes. Cold molecular hydrogen may be detected in the future as the unseen dark matter. Atoms or molecules can be polarized and can be dipoles. I see that these dipoles, not the vacuum, constitute the optical medium of gravitational lensing.

In another paper, "The Deviation of the Vacuum Refractive Index Induced by a Static Gravitational Field", Ye and Lin calculate the delta n, the change in the index of refraction caused by gravity as,
delta n = 2*G*mass/(radius*c^2), the right side is familiar.
4.24E-6, on the surface of the Sun and,
1.39E-9, on the surface of the Earth. The index of refraction caused by gravity is one plus these tiny increments.

These numbers need to be linked with the dipoles.
The atmospheric density at the surface of the Earth is 1.225_kg/m^3 at 0.02846_kg/mol or
1.225_kg/m^3 / 0.02846_kg/mol = 43.04_mol/m^3, *Avogadro's number =
43.04_mol/m^3 * 6.022E23_particles/mol = 2.592E25_particles/m^3 or 295.9E6 particles/meter. These dipoles are 3.379E-9_m apart. Gravity cause these 295.9E6 particles/meter to change the index of refraction by 1.39E-9. Each particle or dipole cause a change in the index of refraction of 4.696E-18 at the gravitational acceleration of the surface of the Earth of 9.8_m/s^2. The index of refraction change is caused by the product of the gravitational acceleration and the density of the dipoles per meter. By adjusting the phase of parallel beams of light, as seen in, helical electromagnetic waves, rotating the polarization, the beams may be made to attract or repel each other. This is demonstrated in this Nature article or this Discover article. Light bends in the electric and magnetic field of the dipoles. The dipoles cause gravity and bend the light.

When there are no accelerations the atoms are nearly spherical. They are always subject to inertia, force = mass*acceleration, because any acceleration polarizes their atoms with respect to the background universe. Does this mean the background universe is charged? Indubitably! This is a charged example of Mach's principle.

Atomic scale ellipses with oppositely charged ends precess into ellipsoids. See Precession in atoms. The electrostatic torque, imposed on the elliptical dipoles of the atoms along their length by the other series dipoles, causes a perpendicular precession of the elliptical orbits of the electron and proton into ellipsoids which rotate like beads on a string. We see atoms as spherical not as orbiting in a plane like the planets.

III. Gravity is caused by pulsed in-line forces
  • The red electrons and blue protons in an atom are most separated when they are at apogee in the middle drawing. They are least separated when they are at perigee in the drawing on the right. When the electrons are at apogee the protons are also at apogee on their own much smaller elliptical orbit. The electrons and protons are moving slower when they are at apogee.
  • The interaction of charges cause forces. The radial movements of the charges also generate forces, currents and magnetic fields.
Origins of flux
Thomas L. Martin Jr. in the "Physical basis for Electrical Engineering"; "It now becomes convenient to assign a synthetic reality to the flux lines, although they are a creation of the mind only and do not exist physically, it is convenient to assume that flux lines do exist and to use them to describe the regions about charged bodies. Thus, we assume the following statements are true:
  1. Charged bodies are the sources of lines of electric flux.
    • Flux lines emanate from bodies carrying positive charge.
    • Flux lines terminate on bodies carrying negative charge.
  2. The flux lines are directed parallel to the force exerted on a positive test charge.
  3. The total number of flux lines associated with a charged body is proportional to the flux density and test charge.
The flux lines are used to represent systematically the flux about a charged body. The flux and charge are really just two different ways to describing the same phenomenon. The charge q describes the properties at a point. The flux and flux density describe the properties some distance away from the point occupied by q. Thus flux and q are just different manifestations of the same physical quantity, so electric flux = q."

The radial movements of the charges, in the figure, also generate forces, currents and magnetic fields. The oscillating charges are an oscillating electric flux. Other atoms would only see an oscillating electric flux. They could not tell the difference between an oscillating charge and an oscillating electric flux. An oscillating charge is an oscillating electric flux which can produce an oscillating magnetic flux which can produce an oscillating electric flux which is the same as a flux of charge. It takes a finite amount of time or delay for an electric flux to transform into a magnetic flux or vice versa. Induction takes time. The sum of these delays, which are proportional to frequency, are what causes the speed of light. The speed of light is the speed of light. Forces are transmitted near instantly. See Helical Electromagnetic Waves.

Capacitance of the electron-proton pair
D = charge density = charge/(area of sphere) = q/(4*pi*r2), for a charge q and sphere of radius r.
E = D/e0 = force/charge = volts/meter = q/(4*pi*e0*r2). The electric field strength. The permittivity e0 = charge2/(force*area of sphere).
force = Fq = q*E = q2/(4*pi*e0*r2). The force between two charges q like an electron and proton in a Bohr atom or a dipole. The distance between the charges is r.
energy = q2/(4*pi*e0*r). The energy is a scalar like temperature. As the attracting charges approach each other r decreases and the energy goes up. The energy is zero when the charges are infinitely far apart. Energy is stored in the force between the charges.
FE = E*q. The force = E*charge exerted by an electric field E on a charge q. The electric field of one charge pushes or pulls on the other charge.
FE = Fq. The two forces are equal.
q*E = q2/(4*pi*e0*r2). Expanded.
E = q/(4*pi*e0*r2) = force/charge = volts/meter. Collected terms.
V = q/(4*pi*e0*r) = energy/charge = volts. A voltage V is measured at a distance r. The voltage increases as r decreases.
V = ce/(4*pi*e0*rc) = 510999.06_kg*m2/(A*s3). Here r = rc the classical radius of the electron. q = ce the charge of the electron. The rest energy of the electron is .5 million electron volts.
V = ce/(4*pi*e0*rc/alpha2) = 27.211396_kg*m2/(A*s3). If r = rc/alpha2 the smallest Bohr orbit. Half of this is 13.6_V, the ionization voltage of the electron.
C = q/V = ce/V. The capacitance is C = charge/voltage = charge2/energy = Farads.
C = 4*pi*e0*r. The Farads increase with r the distance between the charges.
C = 4*pi*e0*rc/alpha2 = 5.88789E-21_A2*s4/(kg*m2). If r = rc/alpha2 the smallest Bohr orbit.
q = C'*V'. While the charges separate in the dipole, the Farads increase with r while the internal voltage decreases. The charge stays the same without any external voltage.
q + qi = C'*V'. However, if while the charges separate an external voltage an energy/charge from other atoms is applied, then the charge is increased since the energy is increased. qi = induced charges.
The average distance between the electron and proton is r = rc/alpha2 the smallest Bohr orbit which is a+p in the figures.
The perigee distance is rc/alpha2*(1-e). The eccentricity of the orbit is e.
The apogee distance is rc/alpha2*(1+e).

Position at apogee - Click figure to animate!
  • The dipoles are rotating in phase like the always moving hands of two clocks.
  • The attracting electrons and protons are moving in opposite directions.
  • They pass each other moving very fast and align for only a moment when passing.
  • The momentary alignment generates a very short pulse of force when the dipoles line up in series. The force is proportional to the length the pulses.
  • The charges are moving slower at apogee than at perigee. The dipoles line up for a longer period of time at apogee. The duration of the pulse of force is longer at apogee.
  • The electron in one atom is closer to the proton in the next atom when they are at apogee so the forces between neighbor atoms are stronger at apogee.
  • These forces at apogee are greater than the force at perigee.
  • These pulsed Coulomb force equations are of the form, ce2/(4*pi*e0*r2), where r is the distance between the attracting electron and proton. cc is the center to center distance between the atoms. ce is the charge of the electron or proton. e0 is the permittivity. e is the eccentricity of the ellipse. These simplified equations look only at the distances between the charges not at the duration of alignment or the duration of the pulses of force.
  • eq1 = ce2/(4*pi*e0*(cc-((a+p)*(1+e)))2), pulsed attractive force, plus to minus, left to right.
  • eq2 = ce2/(4*pi*e0*(cc+((a+p)*(1+e)))2), pulsed attractive force, minus to plus, left to right.
Position at perigee - Click figure to animate!
  • The dipoles are in phase like the always moving hands of two clocks.
  • The attracting electrons and protons are moving in opposite directions.
  • They pass each other moving very fast and align for only a moment when passing.
  • The momentary alignment generates a very short pulse of force when the dipoles line up in series. The force is proportional to the length the pulses.
  • The attracting charges between the atoms are farther apart and are moving much faster when they are at perigee. Because the dipoles line up for a shorter period of time at perigee than at apogee, the duration of the pulse of force is less at perigee than it is at apogee.
  • These forces at perigee are less than the forces at apogee.
  • eq3 = ce2/(4*pi*e0*(cc-((a+p)*(1-e)))2), pulsed attractive force, minus to plus, left to right.
  • eq4 = ce2/(4*pi*e0*(cc+((a+p)*(1-e)))2), pulsed attractive force, plus to minus, left to right.
  • eqR = ce2/(4*pi*e0*cc2), electron-electron and proton-proton repulsive force. These repulsive forces are not pulsed. They are continuous.
  • force = -acceleration*mass, as the charges approach apogee, their tangent and radial velocity decrease so the acceleration is negative.
  • force = +acceleration*mass, as the charges approach appogee, their tangent and radial velocity increase so the acceleration is positive.
  • The forces on both sides of the axis of symmetry of the ellipses are equal and opposite so they cancel.The only points where the orbital forces do not cancel is at the points of inflection.
  • The rate of change in orbital and radial velocity are zero at apogee and at perigee. The acceleration of the charges go through zero and change sign so there is a point of inflection.
  • d/dt (length) = velocity = m/s
  • d/dt (velocity) = acceleration = m/s2
  • d/dt (acceleration) = jerk = m/s3. The charges jerk at the points of inflection. We feel the jerk of a train or when driving as we hit the brake pedal and then the gas pedal to go around a corner. Does the Cosmos jerk? Indeed, it does.
  • A jerk m/s3 times a duration s equals an acceleration m/s2 times the mass kg equals a force kg*m/s2.
  • It is this tangent jerk of the orbiting atomic charges which causes a perpendicular and radial gravitational force.
  • Similarly, a tangent velocity v causes a perpendicular and radial centrifugal force kg*v2/r and a radial acceleration.
We have a pulse of force when the acceleration of charge is zero, when the charges jerk, at both ends of their orbit. These pulses of force are oppositely directed. Near perigee the charges accelerate and then decelerate. Near apogee the charges decelerate and then accelerate.
Short interaction times of forces causes the weakness of gravity
eq1 through eq4 use pulses of force when the dipoles line up in series. These forces are weak because the dipoles primarily interact only when they are in a line. They are only in a line for a moment twice in each revolution of the binary pair when they produce momentary pulses of force along the line of interaction. The distance apart for the electron and proton on their elliptical orbits vary. The force between series dipoles is strongest when the chain of dipoles is longest and when the dipoles are most elliptical.The dipoles are rotating at 6E15_hertz. The attracting electrons and protons are moving in opposite directions. They pass each other at 6E15_hertz squared. If we say the dipoles align for 1/20 of a degree in each revolution or 1/7200 of a revolution. Then we have
1/(7200)2 * 1/(6.576E15)2 = 1/(2.242E39),
This is the ratio of gravitational to Coulomb forces. Gravity is so much weaker than electrostatic force because of the short duration of the in-line interaction of the pulses of force between the in-phase series dipoles.

loading 70K gifloading 70K gif
  • A click on the left figure loads a faster animation with 1/20_s between picture frames.
  • A click on the right figure loads a slower animation with 1/2_s between frames - allowing easier study of its peculiar motions. Note the right hand spirals and the left hand spirals.
  • On the left - the dipoles make concentric circles twice in each cycle with opposite polarity. They generate compressive forces.
  • On the right - the dipoles make radial forces twice in each cycle with opposite polarity.
  • Series dipoles generate much more powerful forces than individual dipole pairs.
Do you have memories of centrifugal force as a child? Of being slung out from the center of a merry-go-round, while you held on for dear life? Centrifugal force polarized your atoms. It was the charge of the Cosmos that tried to throw you from the merry-go-round. Our polarized atoms holds us to the Earth. This is a profoundly small polarization of charge in each atom. Small charges produce big forces.

  • Is mass due to gravitational charge?
  • Is inertia due to gravitational charge?
  • When atoms are accelerated, are they polarized proportional to the acceleration, with this acceleration polarization opposed by the gravitational charge of the universe?
  • Is centrifugal force the pull of the background universe on the atoms polarized by the acceleration of rotation?

It does seem possible. Inertia and mass are related to gravity. Linking charge, gravitation and centrifugal force together is particularly important. These three bedrocks of physics were previously unrelated. Can this be proved?

  • Atoms stick together like magnets. An atom has neighbors. The neighbor atoms impose an electrostatic force.
  • Atoms become bipolar with oppositely charged ends when they are subjected to forces.
  • The atoms along an axis of attraction or acceleration, increase in length and decrease in diameter, as they become ellipsoid. This is an increase in mass along that axis and a decrease in mass perpendicular to the axis.
  • The atoms become ellipsoid as they are stretched, forced or flattened.
  • As masses are moved there is gravitational energy stored in the space between the ellipsoid atoms or the gravitational energy may be stored within the atom by the separation of the charges.
  • The charged ends on one atom attracts the oppositely charged ends of its neighbors. This is like capacitors. Two oppositely charged plates attract each other, store energy and make a capacitor.
  • The atoms with charge neutrality are not capacitors. They are inert like parallel plate capacitors without a battery.
  • The bipolar atoms act like capacitors with a tiny charge.
  • The tiny charges have Coulomb forces.
  • The forces adds up to gravity.
  • Does this mean that gravity is a bulk property of atoms?
  • Does anything smaller than an atom experience gravity?
  • Particles have no gravity.
  • There is no gravity.
  • There is only charge.
  • What we call gravity is a group property of charged orbiting particles.
Quarks are also charged orbiting particles. This view of nature has many consequences which need to be explored.

The outer blobs are matter. The middle blob is antimatter. The rotation of the dipoles are in-phase and share a common phase angle. The matter dipoles attract each other in-series and repel the antimatter. The antimatter dipoles attract each other in-series and repel the matter. Antimatter would be repelled to the edge of the Cosmos. A natural segregation of matter and antimatter. CERN has isolated anti-hydrogen. I look forward to the identification of the gravitational repulsion of matter and antimatter in the next ten years if the dipole charges in anti-matter are opposite those of ordinary matter. How does inertia work with anti-matter?
These are blobs of matter. The middle blob is out-of-phase with the other blobs. The outer matter dipoles attract each other in-series and repel the out-of-phase matter in the center. This repulsion is the same as that shown by the antimatter above. You can see that the right amplitude of out-of-phase matter would cancel the attractive force of the matter leading one to contemplate the shielding of gravitational and electrical forces. Since the forces of gravity and inertia are caused by the oscillating forces between charges, it is possible to shield for the forces. It is easy to shield for electromagnetic waves inside a conductive can. Shielding forces between dipoles is not so trivial because of the very high frequencies involved and because all the dipoles are in phase like the hands of two clocks. Only momentarily twice in each revolution do the dipoles line up. Gravity is the result of these momentary pulses of attraction when the dipoles line up at apogee. Any device to cancel gravity must be 180 degrees out of phase with the dipoles causing gravity. It has the polarity of its dipoles reversed relative to the gravitating bodies. Atoms absorb and emit energy in photons at a certain frequency. Our technology is in the terahertz or 1E12 hertz range. We will need 6 petahertz or 6E15 hertz. If Ray Kurzweil and Moore's Law are correct we can reach the 6 petahertz required for usable oscillators to operate at the atomic frequency in about thirteen years around 2024. A 6 petahertz frequency applied to a dielectric inside a plate capacitor with the right amount of oscillating charge, polarity and phase on the plates might cancel the oscillating charge caused by the Sun, Earth and background universe. When the oscillating charges in the capacitors are inverted and balanced by a phase locked loop, the effect of gravity and inertia might be shielded, reduced or eliminated. One might reduce the shielding in a certain direction and be attracted in that direction. We hope it can run a space ship. We are at the plate capacitor oscillator stage. An advanced technology could do the same thing with a tiny box.

In a ship of this type, the ship and crew could not survive the failure of their shielding mechanism at high velocity. If it failed the ship could go from a residual mass of a few grams to a mass of thousands of kilograms in the time it takes for the circuit to fail. When a fuse blows, the ship disappears like a nuke. An unpleasant fact is that the space ships could be used as a bomb if the pilots went nuts and were willing to kill themselves and us. The ships could be accelerated to the speed of light and crashed into the Earth. Their ten thousand kilograms would become a mass times c squared extinction event. Hiroshima generated 5E10 joules. This would be 9E20 joules. This is eighteen billion Hiroshima's. So much for the progress of man, unlimited energy and for exploring space by shielding of mass and inertia.

  • d/dt(---) is the rate of change of whatever is in the parenthesis. When you see,
    force = d/dt(---) say,"force equals the rate of change of ---".
    Newton said force is the rate of change of momentum.
  • force = d/dt(momentum) or "force equals the rate of change of momentum." and momentum = mass * velocity. It is written in several ways with mass and velocity separated.
  • force = d/dt(mass * velocity) or "force equals the rate of change of, mass times velocity."
  • force = mass * d/dt(velocity) or "force equals the mass times the rate of change of velocity."
  • force = mass * acceleration. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
  • force = d/dt(mass) * velocity or "force equals the rate of change of mass, times velocity." This is how conventional rockets work, by the rate of change of mass times velocity, dumping high speed mass out the back. If there is a huge change in mass in seconds then there is a gigantic acceleration which rips the ship apart. We can write,
  • force = force,
    mass * acceleration = d/dt(mass) * velocity. If all the mass becomes unshielded in a hundredth of a second, and the velocity is c/100 then
    mass * acceleration = mass/0.01_second * c/100