We take a theoretical look at the electromagnet wave in terms of the conservation of energy. This requires that the magnetic field energy M is at maximum when the electric field energy E is at minimum and vise versa. They are perpendicular sine and cosine waves. Light is a sequential machine. E-M-E-M-E-M. The total energy is continuous and conserved as the one is transformed into the other. We will also look at the underlying ring structure and mechanism of the "light wave" using Euler's and Poinsot's equations of torque-free precession. We will see that the speed of light is caused by the rate at which the electric and magnetic fields sequentially transform into each other. This paradigm also allows us to see that loops of light waves may be the basis of all elementary particles.
The electric and magnetic phases are 90 degrees apart in light or EM radiation, electromagnetic waves, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Maxwell's displacement current, the speed of light is caused by the rate of transformation of the electric or magnetic fields into each other, light as a sequential machine, light as flux tubes, photons or light as rings, particles as rings of light, Euler's equations
We will look first at the electromagnetic wave of Maxwell and Hertz where the aether is the medium of propogation for the wave. The perpendicular electric and magnetic waves are in phase as shown in figure 1. The energy of the wave which is required for the next alternation of the wave is stored in the elastic spring-like quality of the aether. The wave is at zero amplitude along the line where the energy of the wave is discontinuous. It is the energy previously stored in the aether which produces the opposite alternation of the wave.
They only look like bird wings. The red and green waves are perpendicular and in phase sine waves. They come to a zero point on the line at the same place and time. The energy at
this time is discontinuous. J.C. Maxwell used the elastic medium of the luminiferous aether to
store the energy of the waves like a compressed spring for the next cycle. Hertz concurred. Three problems: no aether, no spring, no
obvious mechanism to posess or transfer energy. This is the oddly usual view of electromagnetic waves.
We choose a slightly different path. The vacuum of space is a vacuum. Without the aether we must modify the wave form and postulate that the magnetic field energy is at maximum when the electric field energy is at minimum and vise versa. The red and green waves are perpendicular but they are out of phase by 90 degrees. They are sine and cosine waves. The one is transformed into the other. When one wave has maximum
energy the other wave has minimum energy so the total energy is continuous and conserved. We will see them as sequential machines. Maxwell called it, "Using mechanical illustrations to
assist the imagination, but not to
account for the phenomena." Pendulums, Hook's law oscillators, current and voltage in LC oscillators, MRI and transmitter antennas all share
this relationship. Light has the same behavior. All share the same math.
This is like figure 2 but these are stylized sine and cosine waves. We see them as flux tubes with their thickness proportional to their energy content. Their zero crossings are
along the line. Each plasticine element of the flux tube begins and ends at a point. We see a continuous cycle of red up, green right, red down, green left, red up. This is something like a Halbach array. Energy alternates between the red and green waves as each wave induces the other through its own collapse. The one is transformed into the other. The maximum of energy
moves forward and rotates. Light has spin and can transfer angular momentum.
Figure 3 - Faraday's and Ampere's Laws
On the left - Farday's law
The green flux of B times the area of the loop equals red -E times the circumference.
A flux causes a looping around or a looping around causes a flux.
A looping or rotating E causes a flux of B. A flux of B causes a looping or rotating E.
On the right - Ampere's law plus Maxwell
The red flux of E times the area of the loop equals green B times the circumference.
A flux causes a looping around or a looping around causes a flux.
A looping or rotating B causes a flux of E. A flux of E causes a looping or rotating B.
Galaxies and solar systems may form around currents in space as in the plasma universe. This is a flux causing a looping around. The disks around proto-stars frequently have jets as do galaxies. This is a looping around causes a
flux (jet). Faraday's
and Ampere's laws at a huge scale.
Figure 3A - A Chain of Faraday's and Ampere's Laws
This is a chain using the laws of Faraday and Ampere from figure 3. If these are standing waves they might be self sustaining if the chain were looped into a ring.
Figure 3B - Two Halves and Four Strands from the Chain
The four strands of figure 3A have been divided into two halves which now follow the sine and cosine waves of figure 2. Each half is identical but they travel in opposite
directions. Figure 3B can
also be looped into two rings as in figure 5. These rings could be related to Bostick's plasmoid or these rings flipping end over end might look
like a sphere and could be related to ball lightning, articles by Louis or Wiki.
This is another view of figure 2. The red and green flux tubes are still perpendicular but they are drawn flat so they can be scaled. Above the waves is an induction indicator showing how the waves are transformed.
Red is transformed into green. Green is transformed into red. Working sequentially left to right
showing cause and effect for the four steps of one wavelength of figures 2 while using figure 3:
The red in is transformed into the green out. Ampere's law.
The green in is transformed into the red out. Faraday's law.
The red in is transformed into the green out. Ampere's law.
The green in is transformed into the red out. Faraday's law.
The speed of light
is the speed that the green B magnetic field or
the red E electric field, loops around and augers to the right. The index of refraction, of the medium, reduces the velocity. The quarter wavelength pulse of flux, through the quarter circle of area, produces a quarter wavelength looping around the circumference, a quarter wavelength advance of the electromagnetic wave, in wavelength/(4*c) seconds.
This is an end view of approaching light beams of figures 2. The peaks of the cross sections through the flux tubes are shown as colored circles.
The peaks are also shown on figure 2B where they are marked by the verticle lines through the flux tubes. It is easy to follow a clockwise path around figure 2C starting at the top,
+E→+B→-E→-B→+E or with the red sine→green cosine→red -sine→green -cosine→red sine. Light and all electromagnetic radiation can be seen as a sequential
machine advancing on a helical path with four fluid transitions per wavelength.
The helical structure and the transition delay between the peaks accounts for the velocity and refraction of light.
The transition delays are proportional to the wavelength of the light and the medium.
Each transition advances the light like a
screw by a quarter wavelength.
The beam having opposite polarity on opposite sides would be rotated in a magnetic or electrical field.
A verticle slit would show only red and a horizontal slit
would show only green. This is polarization.
Light can go through a hole smaller than its wavelength.
Use your thumb to hide the green of figure 2C, the beam is a double
source with electric field interference.
Use your thumb to hide the red, the beam is a double source with magnetic field interference.
If you use your thumb is it still a Gedankenexperiment? This view of nature has some utility.
kinds of devices does it make possible?
This question was answered. By adjusting the phase of parallel beams of light, rotating the polarization, the beams may be made to attract or repell each other. This is demonstrated in this Nature article or this Discover article.
Top view, top: Red exerts a torque around the green axis, which is into the page.
Side view, bottom: Green exerts a torque around the red axis, which is into the page.
These red and green wires are not the right shape for electromagnetic waves but they are close. The wires do not go to zero at a change in direction. They are fun to make out of colored wires, see Appendix 3.
The red and green are correctly, 90 degrees out of phase.
The red and green are perpendicular. They oscillate in perpendicular planes.
They rotate 90 degrees four times per wavelength or 360 degrees per wavelength.
They demonstate the torque around a perpendicular axis. How does this work?
A torque around one of three perpendicular axes produces a torque perpendicular to the other two axes in a gyroscope. Here the axes of the torque is moving with the waves. This is gyroscopic precession and movement in the direction of travel of the wave. This is a very odd gyroscope indeed. We will explore this later using Euler's equations.
The flux of E or B through an area makes a 90 degree turn and then B or E rotates around the circumference. In a centrifugal pump, the liquid enters the eye of the pump, the center of the impeller and
makes a 90 degree turn in one plane and then a perpendicular 90 degree turn in another plane and is slung outward by the motor along a path that is parallel to the circumference.
We have no deep knowledge of the underlying reality. Our ignorance is more profound than just the missing link between quantum mechanics and relativity. Perhaps both are flawed and the pieces that each contributes to the puzzle of reality need to be rearranged by cherry-picking the best pieces of each. Science is a puzzle. When you close your eyes or walk in the dark to another room, you still know where you are because of your internal world model. Consciousness is seeing oneself mirror-like in ones internal world model. Our knowledge of reality is as riddled with voids as is swiss cheese. Our consciousness papers over these voids so our world model is perceived as smooth and uncomplicated for quick actions necessary for survival. We evolved to quickly see the face of a predator or prey in the shadows. We also see faces in the clouds. Some see the face of God. Apparently, we only see the shiny bits not the voids. We assemble these bits to quickly paint a shallow picture of reality and proceed to live our lives by rules-of-thumb based on these perceptions.
What are forces?
We see the puppets move but we don't see the strings. How are forces propagated? What is their velocity of propagation? What is inertia? These are big unanswered questions which are close to home. Do you see the absurdity of trying to answer deep question about reality, like these, with sentences which include words like "virtual"? Do you see virtual photons in the clouds? Are you seduced by these shiny bits? Do our perceptions and behaviors seem so ape like?
Right hand rule modified 20111224
When you grab a ring with your right hand, the thumb points in the toroidal direction along the ring while the fingers curl through the area of the ring in the perpendicular poloidal direction around the tube. Poloidal flux, which occurs through an area, and perpendicular toroidal looping around, which occurs along a circumference, are always associated. A flux or current has magnitude and direction. It has a rate of change d/dt, if its direction changes, even if its magnitude, area or circumference do not change.
The flux of red E and green B, seen below, are as real as a mudslide. If they are real, what are they? We know their units. The mathematical interaction of units tells us something about the consistancy of our world model but one might mistake superficial knowledge of units for the deep knowledge of reality.
First on the left, Faraday's law/(c*u0): d(B*pi*r2)/dt /(c*u0) = 2*pi*r*E/(c*u0) = amps.
The poloidal green flux of B/(c*u0) times the area of the ring equals or is transformed into the toroidal red E/(c*u0) times the circumference of the ring. Red exerts a torque around green. B, E and the area of their loops may be constant but there is looping. A change in direction is also a change over time in the flux, a dB/dt or dE/dt.
Second: The poloidal green flux which was shown as a green arrow is now shown as a green poloidal looping around the red torroidal current.
The green flux is still out of the ring like the north pole of a magnet.
Third, Ampere's law: e0*d(E*pi*r2)/dt = 2*pi*r*B/u0 = amps. Maxwell's changing red poloidal displacement current times the area of the tube equals or is transformed into the toroidal green current times the circumference of the tube. Green exerts a torque around red. This is a cross section through the second figure. It shows a single green loop of the poloidal flux around the tube and a piece of the red ring is now shown as a red arrow. In this cross section, the former red toroidal is now red poroidal and the former green poroidal is now green toroidal. This perpendicular transformation changes our viewpoint from Faraday to Ampere.
Forth: The poloidal red flux which was shown as a red arrow is now shown as a red poloidal looping around a green torroidal current. The red flux is still out of the ring.
A changing magnetic flux through a circular area generates a loop electric field which accelerates the electrons in a Betatron. Green is transformed into red.
Faraday's law and the electromagnetic wave, +B→-E or -B→+E
E and B are sine and cosine waves because they are ninety degrees out of phase. B is the cosine since it has a sign change in its derivative. Lenz's law comes from the sign change in the derivative. d(cos)/dt = -sin or d(-cos)/dt = sin. Faraday's law is applied twice per wavelength so there
is no net sign change per wavelength since, -1*-1 = 1. This sign change does not occur in Ampere's law, noting d(sin)/dt = cos or d(-sin)/dt = -cos, does not have a sign change.
Our derivation of Faraday's law starts with the idea that the rate of change of B is 4*pi*B times the frequency of the wave. d(B)/dt = 4*pi*B*frequency, kg/(A*s3) Teslas/second d(B)/dt = 4*pi*B *c/(2*pi*r), frequency = c/wavelength = c/(2*pi*r). Frequency measures how many loops something, moving at c, does in the ring 2*pi*r per second. d(B)/dt = 4*pi*-E/(2*pi*r), B*c = -E, in an electromagnetic wave. See appendix 2. 2*-E = r*d(B)/dt, group terms, volts/meter = kg*m/(A*s3) = kg*m/s2 * 1/(A*s) = force/charge 2*pi*r*-E = pi*r2*d(B)/dt, multiply by (pi*r) 2*pi*r*-E = d(B*pi*r2)/dt, or -E*ds = d(B)/dt, Faraday's law. volts = kg*m2/(A*s3) = amps*resistance = energy/charge = watts/amps. Toroidal red -E times the circumference of the loop equals the rate of
change of the poloidal magnetic flux of green B times the area of the loop. Faraday's law.
When we divide the voltage on both sides of
Faraday's law by the resistance of a loop or coil of wire then we get Ohm's law: volts/resistance = amps. 2*pi*r*-E /resistance = (d(B*pi*r2)/dt) /resistance, amps or E*ds / resistance = d(B)/dt / resistance, amps.
The toroidal amps in the loop equals the poloidal flux of amps through the area of the loop. This is the reversing current seen on a galvanometer, when hooked to a coil of wire, while a magnet is inserted and removed from the coil of wire. This classic experiment is strong direct evidence
for Faraday's law.
Integrals of Faraday's law
E*ds = -d(B)/dt, integral form of Faraday's law.
Hyperphysics or Wiki E*ds = 2*pi*r*-E, the line integral of the electric field equals the circumference of the loop times E. d(B)/dt = d(B*pi*r2)/dt, the rate of change of the magnetic flux equals the rate of change of B times
the area of the loop.
A changing electric flux through the circular area of a plate capacitor generates a loop magnetic field. Red is transformed into green. Ampere's law and the electromagnetic wave, E→B:
Our derivation of Ampere's law is very similar to Faraday's law. The rate of change of E is 4*pi*E times the frequency of the wave. d(E)/dt = 4*pi*E*frequency, kg*m/(A*s4) volts/(meter*seconds) d(E)/dt = 4*pi*B*c*frequency, E = B*c, in an electromagnetic wave. See appendix 2. d(E)/dt = 4*pi*B*c*c/(2*pi*r), frequency = c/wavelength = c/(2*pi*r). Frequency measures how many loops something, moving at c, does in the ring 2*pi*r per second. 2*B = r/c2*d(E)/dt, kg/(A*s2) Teslas, collected terms 2*pi*r*B = pi*r2/c2*d(E)/dt, multiply by (pi*r) 2*pi*r*B = 1/c2*d(E*pi*r2)/dt, or B*ds = 1/c2*d(E)/dt, Ampere's law,
B = kg*m/(A*s2) = kg*m/(s2) * s/m * 1/(A*s), force per velocity per charge or force/(amps*meters). Force = B*q*v = B*A*s*m/s = B*A*m. v is velocity.
Toroidal green B times the circumference of the loop equals one over c squared times the rate of
change of the poloidal electrical flux of red E times the area of the loop. Ampere's law. 2*pi*r*B = e0*u0*d(E*pi*r2)/dt, or B*ds = e0*u0*d(E)/dt, Ampere's law. 1/c2 = e0*u0. 2*pi*r*B/u0 = e0*d(E*pi*r2)/dt, amps or 1/u0*B*ds = e0*d(E)/dt, amps. The left hand side of the equation, the toroidal amps, due to B, in the loop equals the right hand side of the equation, the poloidal flux of amps, due to E, through the area of the loop. The right hand side of the equations are Maxwell's displacement current. We will use this, amps equals amps form, along the wavefront. This is the form of Ampere's law used in the Ring Electron.
Integrals of Ampere's law:
B*ds = 1/c2*d(E)/dt B*ds = 2*pi*r*B, The line integral around the curve equals the circumference of the loop times B. d(E)/dt = d(E*pi*r2)/dt, The rate of change of the electric flux equals the rate of change of E times
the area of the loop. B*ds = I*u0 + 1/c2*d(E*da)/dt. I is amps.
Maxwell's modification of Ampere's law per Hyperphysics or per Wiki B*ds = I*u0 + e0*u0*d(E)/dt. Substituted e0*u0
= 1/c2. The above is written more clearly. 1/u0*B*ds = I + e0*d(E)/dt. Divided by u0. 2*pi*r*B/u0 = I + e0*d(E*pi*r2)/dt = amps. These equations are written much more clearly without the integral and flux symbols. This makes them more accessible to a larger audience but the witch doctor rarely wants to share his tricks. Wiki is especially subject to experts writing in the code of their trade with no thought to a larger audience. I could not find these these simpler equations on
the Internet. They are shown in the textbooks I reference. The right hand side of the equation is Maxwell's displacement current. The amps in the loop equals the flux of amps through the area of
Figure 2BA - Flux tubes showing their negative excursions as another color
Figure 2D - Flux tubes as sequential machines
These are top and side views of figure 2 and figure 3B. These are drawn to scale according to the wavelength and fatness ratio which are invarient features of all wavelengths. They all have the same shape.
The wavelength here is 314 pixels and the maximum diameter of the flux tubes is 25 pixels.
The flux tubes here are pointy jelly beans strung together like sausages.
The loops which were visible, above and below the line on figure 2BA, are now hard to see on figure 2D but they are clearly shown in the cross sections of
figure 2E as the sines and cosines of the triangles.
The half wavelength flux tubes still start and end on a point in the center.
They make continuous rolling contact with a neighbor flux tube.
Each wavelength may be considered another series photon.
The electric field E is a +red and -pink sine wave flux tube. E is transformed into B. E exerts a torque around B.
The magnetic field B is a +green and -cyan cosine wave flux tube. B is transformed into E. B exerts a torque around E.
The cross sectional radius and ring of circumference of the flux tubes is proportional to sine2 or cosine2 as is their energy.
The energy is located along the rotating circular rings of circumference of the flux tubes.
E and B rotate in opposite directions.
Where the E and B flux tubes touch there is a rolling contact and transfer of energy, current and circumference as the flux tubes change size.
This is a three dimensional view
of an action which occurs over time on the two dimensional surface of the expanding spherical wavefront. The action and flux tubes are created by expanding and shrinking ring pairs on the wavefront.
We have an alternating electric field flux tube which spirals along an alternating magnetic field flux tube.
We have an alternating magnetic field flux tube which spirals along an alternating electric field flux tube.
The flux tubes are braided. A line between the centers of the E and B flux tubes traces out the icon of life, a double helix. Life preceeded by light. Nature shows us this shape in a stream of water or the chop on a lake. There is a circular circulation in a cross section of a
wave of water or a wave of light. Here the waves only appear bean like or volume like when seen over time. The waves exist only as swirling rings of energy on an expanding two dimensional spherical wave front, only
in the here and now, rain drops making rings on still water.
Figure 2D - Flux tubes as sequential machines
Working left to right for the four steps of one wavelength.
Red in green out, red is transformed into green, +E → +B, d(sine)/dt → cosine. Row 1 on figure 2E. e0*d(E*pi*r2)/dt = 2*pi*r*B/u0 = amps, Ampere's law. Maxwell's red changing poloidal displacement current times the area of the loop equals the green toroidal current times the circumference of the loop.
Green in -pink out, green is transformed into -pink, +B → -E, d(cosine)/dt → -sine. Row 2 on figure 2E. (d(B*pi*r2)/dt) /(c*u0) = 2*pi*r*-E /(c*u0) = amps, Faraday's law/(c*u0). The changing green poloidal current times the area of the loop equals the toroidal pink current times the circumference of the loop.
-Pink in -cyan out, -pink is transformed into -cyan, -E → -B, d(-sine)/dt → -cosine. Row 3 on figure 2E. e0*d(-E*pi*r2)/dt = 2*pi*r*-B/u0 = amps, Ampere's law. Maxwell's changing pink poloidal displacement current times the area of the loop equals the toroidal cyan current times the circumference of the loop.
-Cyan in red out, -cyan is transformed into red, -B → +E, d(-cosine)/dt → sine. Row 4 on figure 2E. (d(-B*pi*r2)/dt) /(c*u0) = 2*pi*r*E /(c*u0) = amps, Faraday's law/(c*u0). The changing poloidal cyan current times the area of the loop equals the toroidal red current times the circumference of the loop.
Figure 2E - Cross section through the flux tubes. Click image to animate!
Work this figure with the previous flux tubes of figure 2D. We saw on figure 2D, top and side views showing sine and cosine waves and flux tubes.
Here on figure 2E, this is a movie array showing 24 cross sections through those flux tubes per wavelength.
Here on figure 2E, we have end views of
the cross sections of figure 2D. The cross sections through the flux tubes are loops or rings. The sequence is +red→+green→-pink→-cyan→+red.
The plane of the paper is the wavefront.
The rings are on the wavefront. Light is rings of current.
These rings are the substance and hold the energy of electromagnetic waves.
Rings preceed flux tubes. Any cross section through the hollow flux tubes show their origin in the rings.
Flux tubes are the integration of these rings over time.
The central axis of the wave is at the right angle of the triangle.
The electric field rings move up and down. E is a +red or -pink ring. Its radius is proportional to the sine2. Verticle movement of E exerts a torque around the B horizontal axis.
The magnetic field rings move left and right. B is a +green or -cyan ring. Its radius is proportional to
the cosine2. Horizontal movement of B exerts a torque around the E verticle axis.
The energy is located on the rotating circular rings of current along the circumference of the flux tubes.
The energy is proportional to the radius or circumference of the rings.
E and B rotate in opposite directions.
Where the E an B rings touch there is a rolling contact and transfer of energy, current and circumference as the rings change size. This is an action which occurs over time on the two dimensional surface of the expanding spherical wavefront.
The action and flux tubes are created by expanding and shrinking ring pairs on the wavefront.
We have an alternating electric field ring which spirals along an alternating magnetic field ring.
We have an alternating magnetic field ring which spirals along an alternating electric field ring.
Energy or frequency changes in electromagnetic waves result in tensile or compressive forces.
Electromagnetic waves can be viewed as a coiled spring. When the wavelength increases the distance between the coils
increases. This is a tensile force on the medium. When the wavelength decreases the distance between the coils decreases. This is a compressive force on the medium. There can be huge forces, at
high currents anywhere the wavelength or frequency varies. Exploding wires which look like fragmented spaghetti and compression damage in rail guns have been noted. See Graneau and Graneau in,
"Newton versus Einstein" for these and other details of the ongoing conflict between conventional theory and experiment.
The verticle or horizontal straight line motions of the rings in and out of the right angle on figure 2E are sine or cosine flux tube waves when seen over time from the perpendicular point of view of figure 2D.
The circles in the animation are vaguely reminiscent of accreation disks, like those found in binary star systems, where one star streams material onto the other star. Here we expect a current to stream from one ring to the other at their point of rolling contact.
The expanding spherical shell of any electromagnetic wavefront would have polka-dots of this pattern. These rings are the only substance an electromagnetic wave has. They only exist on a wavefront.
We only see the sine and cosine waves or flux tubes of figure 2D through the persistance of vision of an oscilloscope.
Shrinking and Expanding Rings
On the left, a capacitor ring is shown in two stages as it shrinks.
A string of charges making a ring has a uniform charge per unit length. The charge Q along the rings per unit length is uniform but the circumference and area is changing. The ring looses charge as it shrinks. A shrinking or expanding ring with a charge per unit length would show dQ/dt which is amps.
A charge has an electric field E. The electric field along the ring is uniform but the length and area is changing so it shows dE/dt. This is Ampere's law.
On the right, a magnetic ring is shown in two stages as it shrinks.
A string of magnetic beads making a ring has a uniform magnetic charge per unit length. The magnetic field B along the ring per unit length is uniform but the circumference and area is changing so it shows dB/dt. This is Faraday's law.
frequency*wavelength = c wavelength = 4*transition, we have four ring-to-ring transistions per wavelength on figure 2E so frequency*transition = c/4, short wavelengths and higher frequencies have shorter transitions energy = hp*frequency, hp is Plank's constant. energy*transition = c*hp/4, At higher energies the transition is shorter.
Hypothenuse and wavelength
The rings rotate in opposite directions. The charge content of the rings rotates at the
speed of light as the rings transfer energy to their partner. The ring to ring transfers occur along the line between their centers, the hypotenuse. The hypotenuse rotates tracing out a double helix over time. h = wavelength/(8*pi), the hypotenuse of the triangle. 2*pi*h = wavelength/4, the sum of the circumference of the ring pair. It is the length of the string or ribbon of charge, in a ring orbit, making four ring to ring transfers per wavelength while traveling a distance of one wavelength at the speed of light.
The hypotenuse in this figure is about 7_mm so this could be a life size cross sectional diagram of a 7_mm*8*pi = 176_mm wavelength, 1.7_Ghz
h2= x2 + y2, Pythagorean theorem. h is the hypotenuse of the right triangle in figure 2E and the distance between the rings and the maximum radius of the flux tubes of figure 2D. x = cos*h = cos*wavelength/(8*pi), distance from the wave central axis to the center of the x ring. y = sin*h = sin*wavelength/(8*pi), distance from the wave central axis to the center of the y ring. h2 = h2*cos2 + h2*sin2, substituted for x2 and y2. h = h*cos2 + h*sin2, multiplied by 1/h. h, the distance between the rings, at wavelength/(8*pi), is constant. h*cos2 = wavelength*cos2/(8*pi), the radius of the x ring. In the waveforms of figure 2D, the wavelength is 314 pixels and h the maximum radius is 12.5 pixels, so the waveform is drawn to scale. h*sin2 = wavelength*sin2/(8*pi), the radius of the y ring. 2*pi*h*cos2 + 2*pi*h*sin2 = 2*pi*h = wavelength/4, the sum of the circumferences of the ring pair.
Ring mass, energy and charge are shared between the rings
The end views of figure 2E are useful. We have rings, masses, fluxes and currents which flow in the x and y directions. A
verticle current is a currenty. A horizontal current is a currentx. mt = hp*c/wavelength / c2 = hp/(wavelength*c). mt = total mass of both rings which equals the energy divided by c2. The
energy, mass and charge in each ring are proportional to the sine2 or cosine2 of the wave. hp is Plank's constant. mt2 = x2 + y2, the Pythagorean theorem substituting mt for the hypotenuse of the triangle. x = mt*cos, y = mt*sin, mt2 = mt2 *cos2 + mt2 *sin2, mt = mt*cos2 + mt*sin2, multiplied by 1/mt. mt is constant with wavelength. The sum of the two mass equivalents of the energy of the
rings is mt. mt is shared between both rings. mx = mt*cos2, mass of x ring. my = mt*sin2, mass of y ring.
qw = qx + qy, qw the charge is a constant of nature. See appendix 2. qw is shared between both rings. qx = qw*cos2 qy = qw*sin2
Figure 2F - Graph of sin2 and cos2 = Radius, Energy or Masses of the rings.
Red, E ring, sin2. Green, B ring, cos2. Blue, E + B rings,
sin2 + cos2. Cyan, frequency reference sine wave. h*cos2or h*sin2, are the radius of the rings. Their graphs are symmetrical. One ring grows and
the other shrinks. The sum of the radii or the sum of the circumference of the two rings are constant. The sum of the energy of the two rings are constant. These are twice the frequency of the
electromagnetic wave. The height of the graph indicates that the total energy from the sum of E and B is constant while oscillating between E and B. This is consistent with all the charge, energy
or mass of the wave being uniformly distributed over the sum of the circumference of the ring pairs which is 2*pi*h = wavelength/4. Any verticle line shows the division of the radius,
circumference, charge, mass or of the energy between the colors so we can write, B2*wavelength3/u0 = hp*c/wavelength = total energy, See appendix 2. hp is Plank's constant. B2*wavelength3/u0 *(sine2 + cosine2) = hp*c/wavelength, (sine2 + cosine2) = 1 B2*wavelength3/u0 *sine2 + B2*wavelength3/u0*cosine2 = hp*c/wavelength, B2*wavelength3/u0 *sine2 + E2/c2*wavelength3/u0*cosine2 = hp*c/wavelength, B2 =
E2/c2 B2*wavelength3/u0 *sine2 + E2*(e0*u0)*wavelength3/u0*cosine2 = hp*c/wavelength, 1/c2 = (e0*u0) B2*wavelength3/u0 *sine2 + E2*e0*wavelength3*cosine2 = hp*c/wavelength = total energy,
Figure 2G - Graph of the rate of change of sin2 or cos2
as in the rate of change of the radius, circumference, charge, energy or mass of the rings. Red, E ring, (2*sin*cos). Green, B ring,
-(2*sin*cos). Cyan, frequency reference sine wave. The rates of change are maximum when the rings have the same size. The rates of change are minimum when the rings have their maximum or minimum
radius. In figure 2E, we expect a current to stream from one ring to the other at their point of contact. In figure 2G, above the line current flows in and below the line current flows out. The current flowing out of one ring equals the current flowing into the other ring just like the flow through a junction in hydraulic calculations. A
shrinking or expanding ring with a charge per unit length would show a dq/dt = amps ring to ring current.
Rate of change of the circumference of the rings = d(2*pi*r*frequency)/dt
The rate of change of the length of the circumference, d(2*pi*r)/dt, has units of velocity, meters/second. d(2*pi*r)/dt = d(2*pi*h*sin2)/dt = 2*pi*wavelength/(8*pi)*d(sin2)/dt d(2*pi*r)/dt *frequency = wavelength/4*d(sin2)/dt*c/wavelength = c/4*d(sin2)/dt = c*sin*cos/2,
This rate of change may be plus or minus for a forward d(sin2)/dt or reverse d(cos2)/dt change.
Current in the rings = dq/dt
Current is the rate of change of the (amps*seconds) charge. qw = Ce/(2*alpha).5= (hp/(c*u0)).5 = amps*seconds. qw is the total charge. It is spread over the circumference of the rings. qw/(total length of loops) = qw*4/wavelength, This is the charge per unit length. The sum of the circumference of both loops is the wavelength/4. dq/dt = qw*4/wavelength *d(2*pi*r*frequency)/dt = qw*4/wavelength *c/2*sin*cos =
dq/dt = qw*c/wavelength*2*sin*cos = qw*frequency*2*sin*cos = amps, dq/dt = qw*frequency = amps. This is the positive amps, qw*frequency*d(sin2)/dt or the negative amps qw*frequency*d(cos2)/dt, which flow from ring to ring.
This is in the form, charge/meter * meter/second = charge/second = amps*seconds/seconds = amps. How could we know anything without units?
E in the rings and dE/dt
Anything that has a charge has an electric field. The electric field may point charge to charge, or be generated in a loop like Faraday's law. We will see a loop as a bipolar unit, like a long bar magnet, length of spherical magnets or magnetic beads, whose oppositely charged ends have looped around and stuck together thereby loosing its bipolar character. The charge of the wave is quite small and is spread over the length of the rings. The static electric field due to this small charge is also very small. A shrinking or expanding ring with a charge per unit length would have a dE/dt. The dynamic rate of change of the electric field, which is a product of multiplication of the small charge by the rate of change of the circumference times the frequency, can be very large.
We postulate a further bipolar electric field for the flux units where opposite polarity may hold the flux units into rings. This constitutes a tensile strength associated with the electrical flux, an electrical pinch force. When the units in the rings from figure 4 are held together by this bipolar electric field the electric field is confined within the ring but the perpendicular bipolar magnetic field is exposed. Etotal/(total length of loops) = Etotal*4/wavelength, This is the E charge per unit length. Etotal is the total E spread over the circumference of the rings. The sum of the circumference of both loops is the wavelength/4. dE/dt = Etotal*4/wavelength *d(2*pi*r*frequency)/dt = Etotal*4/wavelength *c/2*sin*cos =
This is in the form, E/meter * meter/second = E/second = dE/dt dE/dt = Etotal*c/wavelength*2*sin*cos = Etotal*frequency*2*sin*cos dE/dt = 4*pi*E*frequency. This is Ampere's law if Etotal*2*sin*cos = 4*pi*E. 2*sin*cos = d(sin2)/dt.
B in the rings and dB/dt:
A string of magnetic beads has a magnetic charge per unit length. A shrinking or expanding ring with a magnetic charge per unit length would show a dB/dt.
Magnetic pinch force
A ring of bipolar magnetic beads shows tensile strength. Is this the magnetic pinch force? We postulate a static bipolar magnetic field for the flux units where opposite polarity may hold the flux units into rings in this same way. When the units in the rings from figure 4 are held together by this bipolar magnetic field the magnetic field is confined within the ring but the perpendicular bipolar electric field is exposed.
Btotal/(total length of loops) = Btotal*4/wavelength,
This is the B charge per unit length. Btotal is the total B spread over the circumference of the rings. The sum of the circumference of both loops is the wavelength/4. dB/dt = Btotal*4/wavelength *d(2*pi*r)/dt = Btotal*4/wavelength *c/2*sin*cos =
This is in the form, B/meter * meter/second = B/second = dB/dt. dB/dt = Btotal*c/wavelength*2*sin*cos = Btotal*frequency*2*sin*cos dB/dt = 4*pi*B*frequency. This is Faraday's law if Btotal*2*sin*cos = 4*pi*B. -2*sin*cos= d(cos2)/dt.
The rate of change of the charge on each ring
as the rings change size constitutes a current which flows from ring to ring across the plane of the wavefront. The extremes of the waves, on figure 2G, are the maximum currents flowing ring to ring which are, dq/dt = qw*frequency = amps. dB/dt = 4*pi*B*frequency. dE/dt = 4*pi*E*frequency. We haven't assigned names to the dB/dt and dE/dt currents.
The link between rings on the wave front and their perpendicular waves
We have demonstrated toroidal currents which flow ring to ring on the wavefront. We must also describe these same currents flowing forward at the speed of light with the wavefront through the flux tubes according to Faraday's and Ampere's law. When Ampere's law was written to show Maxwell's displacement current we noticed, "The toroidal amps in the loop equals the poloidal flux of amps through the area of the loop." This is the link between the toroidal current flowing ring to ring on the wavefront and the poloidal current flowing through the area perpendicular to the wavefront. Ampere and Faraday are about perpendicular relationships. The toroidal current flowing ring to ring on the wavefront equals the perpendicular polodial current flowing through the flux tubes.
Figure 4 - Cross section through flux tubes - Click to animate!
This is a face view. The cross sections through the flux tubes in the movie are rings. Only two rings can exist at a time but we have shown all four rings so you can see their rotations and transformations. The center arrows show the counter-clockwise direction of the transformations. These rings evolved from earlier work on spirals. See the spiral animated gif. The rings, at this scale, are charged colored ribbons. They unroll from one ring and
roll onto the next ring. They transform where the ribbon changes colors, E becomes B or B becomes E. +red→+green→-pink→-cyan→+red. The color changes where the rings touch. Visualize
a uniform charge distributed over the variable circumference of both rings. The rate of change of the charge is a current transfered ring to ring.
The hypotenuse in this figure is about 37_mm so this could be a life size cross sectional diagram of a 37_mm*8*pi = 930_mm wavelength, 322_Mhz electromagnetic wave. This detailed
mechanistic view of electromagnetic waves makes falsifiable predictions. Standing waves of figure 2D have a fixed spacing of E and B fields. The E fields may be measured and located and the B
fields inferred. Properly spaced B fields of a certain strength would apply a predictable polarizing torsion.
The electric field flux tube, in cross section, rotates counter-clockwise. The magnetic field flux tube, in cross section, rotates clockwise. This suggest a simple root for their differences.
Inertia can be understood as the acceleration dependent gravitational influence of the background cosmos. We might understand the differences between the E an B fields in terms of the fields and
rotation of the background cosmos.
Figure 4A - The rings and ribbons are shown face on
as in figure 4 and figure 2E. These ring transitions are shown here at a larger scale and are unrolled flat. The face and bottom have
Figure 4B - The rings and ribbons are shown edge on
The sides, where the rotation arrows are shown, have little or no E or B charge. This shows the hypothetical units of charge and flux. The ribbons and rings are made from a long string of these units of flux. They each have a bipolar magnetic B field and a perpendicular bipolar electrical E field. Each unit
is a flat square having a fractional a*s charge per unit and four E or B charged edges: -E,-B,+E,+B. These are series and parallel magnets and charges. We have series magnets which stick together while sporting parallel charges. We have series charges which stick together while sporting parallel magnets. They interact like square magnets, opposites attract, likes repell, B and E ignore each other. The ring shaped stack of units which is unrolling radiates
units. The units transform when each unit rotates and restacks. E becomes B or B becomes E by showing a different pair of edges. The edge pairs, which stick together, B and -B or E and -E, merge into
a ring. The strong bipolar fields of the merged units are concealed within the rings. What remains is a ring, which still shows a charged top and bottom from the other perpendicular bipolar field, B and -B or E and -E. Stacks of the units have opposite
charges on their ends. The ends attract each other to loop around to make rings.
Pinch and repulsion
A row of parallel magnets, with their bi-poles pointing in the same direction, repell each other. If the parallel magnets are each rotated ninety degrees, they are in series, their poles now attract each other. They form rows or rings of magnets with a tensile strength. Call this opposite pair magnetic pinch and magnetic repulsion.
A row of parallel bipolar charges, with their bi-poles pointing in the same direction, repell each other. If the parallel bipolar charges are each rotated ninety degrees, they are in series, their poles now attract each other. They form rows or rings of bipolar charges with a tensile strength. Call this opposite pair electrostatic pinch and electrostatic repulsion.
Units may have both bipolar magnetism and bipolar charge arranged in a cross or square which are assembled into rows or chains which assemble into rings. The units may rotate in ninety degree steps and make rows and rings as follows:
This is series magnetic dipoles. We have magnetic pinch force holding the row together, which is concealed, except for the ends which are also concealed when this loops into a ring, while showing perpendicular charge plus up.
This is series electrostatic dipoles. We have electrostatic pinch force holding the row together, which is concealed, except for the ends which are also concealed when this loops into a ring,
while showing perpendicular magnetism plus up.
This is series magnetic dipoles. We have magnetic pinch holding the row together, which is concealed, except for the ends which are also concealed when this loops into a ring, while showing perpendicular charge plus down.
This is series electrostatic dipoles. We have electrostatic pinch force holding the row together, which is concealed, except for the ends which are also concealed when this loops into a ring, while showing perpendicular magnetism plus down.
This is series magnetic dipoles. We have magnetic force holding the row together, which is concealed, except for the ends which are also concealed when this loops into a ring, while showing perpendicular charge plus up. Can you see the flux tubes of figure 2D and figure 2E and the rings of figure 4 in terms of series and parallel bipolar charges?
Iron filings and bar magnets
When you look at the pattern of iron filings on a glass or plastic over a short bar magnet you see lines of magnetized iron filings stuck together by magnetism. The iron filings have become lines of tiny series magnets, lines of tiny series dipoles, curving around to the opposite poles of the bar magnet. Energy is stored in each dipole. We have serial tensile forces. We have to add the binding energy of the dipoles to pull them apart. The lines of tiny series magnets repel each other which accounts for their spacing. The lines repel each other because their poles point in the same direction and like poles repel. The lines may stick together and clump when they are close to each other and their centers are offset. K&J has an interesting magnetic field calculator which shows a pattern similar to the above for thin disk magnets. Helmholtz coils are similar. See hyperphysics for a loop or ring current.
We might say that magnetic field lines originate at the top of a magnet and return at the bottom of a magnet as they do in the figure above. A much longer magnet would have its field lines stretched into a solenoid, loosing its circular symmetry, but the lines still leave the top and return to the bottom of the magnet. When this long magnet is bent and closed into a loop, its top and bottom and the source and destination of the lines merge so the lines disappear so the magnetic field in a ring is concealed. If the green magnet above is stretched into a long bar magnet and bent and closed into a loop then the external field of the magnet disappears. The huge ring currents in the electron and proton if seen would have huge magnetic fields which would disrupt the orbits of the electron and proton in the atom but since the ring current is closed into a loop the external fields disappears. The ring currents still cause the magnetic moment so we are left with the peculiar situation of a magnetic moment without an obvious source magnetic field. In the electron and proton where the charge q moves at the speed of light c we have, q*E = q*c*B, which can be written E = c*B, E2 = c2*B2, E2 = B2/(e0*u0),
E2*e0 = B2/u0, energy/volume Coulomb repulsion pressure = force/area magnetic pinch pressure. Is this something which suppresses the huge magnetic field of the electron which is due to its magnetic moment?
Rings of magnetic beads or spherical magnets
have a lot of tensile strength and are hard to pull apart. They are series magnetic dipoles. Rings hide the bipolar glue of their dipolar units which holds them together in rings. Their hidden flux is confined to the ring. See helical electromagnetic waves. Toroidal transformers are used in radio work because of their low noise or signal leakage. Rings of very strong spherical magnets have a very strong internal magnetic field and a very weak external magnetic field but they still maintain their strong tensile forces. See the Beaty video. Magnets have other interesting structural assembly properties. Interesting sources are K&J and neocube. Warning! Magnets can be addictive. One might be subject to spousal abuse for spending too much money on too many magnets.
In a similar way, the field lines from a charge dipole or polarized atom might leave from one end and return to the other end of the dipole so we might expect a series of charge dipoles to act like the series of magnetic dipoles and hide the majority of their lines in a ring with only minor leakage and still maintain their strong tensile forces.
Bipolar atoms stick together like magnetized iron filings or strings of magnetic beads. This is like the magnetic beads in the figure below. The ends of the rows of polarized atoms have a strong polarity and strong attractive and repulsive forces.
are a fun way to experiment with bipolar ideas. The ends of rows of magnetic beads have a strong polarity. These rows of magnets stick together because they are offset, close together and their poles point in the same direction.
Like poles repell
These rows of magnets repell each other because like charges repell.
Opposite poles attract
These rows of magnets stick together because opposite poles attract.
Loops of magnets
Magnets stick together to make a helix out of a long string of magnets. Only the ends are exposed and show the polarity. The two loops of magnets on the right attract each other because opposite poles attract. Loops of electrostatic dipoles attract each other in just this way.
Magnets and dipoles
Both have poles. Poles have polarity. Oppositely charged poles are bipoles or dipoles.
The forces between their charged ends may be expressed, by us, with parallel and perpendicular components. They assemble in complex structures.
Magnets are accessible. Magnets are magnetic dipoles which are a model for charge dipoles which are a model for gravity.
Figure 5 - This is loops of light as particles
The outside of the rings are, left to right, red, pink, green and cyan or +E,-E,+B and -B.
The inside of the rings is largely hidden.
There are four possible arrangements.
These rings are particles which would attract or repell each other.
The left two rings are oppositely charged particles with a bipoler magnetic field like electrons and positrons.
The left two rings would attract each other, stack and stick together.
The right two rings are magnetic monopoles which have a bipoler electrical field.
The right two rings would attract each other, stack and stick together.
The pair of monopoles stack becoming bipoles.
These are possible aspects of light which is deflected. We know that light can be deflected from numerous cases of gravitational lensing. Light is also deflected into rings in a black holeblack hole. These rings will illustrate our point but light can be deflected without being
deflected into a ring.
First, on the left, the green-cyan ring is deflected into a circle.
The red-pink ring is deflected into a circle which has a larger outside diameter than its inside diameter.
The energy density on the inside diameter is greater than on the outside diameter.
Euler's equations and electromagnetic wave dynamics
Euler's equations are used to express three dimensional rotational motions; roll, pitch and yaw in aircraft or spacecraft and precession or nutation in gyroscopes and rotating bodies. We use them to understand the flux and looping around of Faraday's and Ampere's laws in electromagnetic waves and
T is for torque and the subscript is for the axis
a is the roll or axial axis which transfers the angular momentum or spin of the light.
b is the pitch or magnetic axis which is perpendicular to the axial
e is the yaw or electrical axis which is perpendicular to both the axial and magnetic axes.
E exerts a torque around the b axis.
B exerts a torque around the e axis.
E+B exerts a torque around the a axis. The transfer of torque as angular momentum or spin is along the a axis.
Ta = Ia*dwa/dt +(Ib-Ie)*we*wb
Tb = Ib*dwb/dt +(Ie-Ia)*wa*we
Te = Ie*dwe/dt +(Ia-Ib)*wb*wa
w is angular velocity.
dw/dt is the the angular acceleration, the rate of change of the angular velocity.
I is the moment of inertia, I = mass*radius2, for the hoop or ring which we see along the spherical wavefront in figure 2E.
The mass is only that which is calculated from the energy.
The total mass mt, is proportional to
energy and therefore proportional to E2 or B2 of the energy density and sin2 or cos2 of our waves.
T is the torque or moment. torque = moment of inertia * angular acceleration.
h is the hypothenuse, of the right triangle, on figure 2E.
The moment of inertia is calculated using the parallel axis theorem,
I = Icm + m*D2, Icm is the center of mass moment of inertia of the ring Icm = m*r2.
m is the mass. r is the ring radius.
the distance Icmmoves from the central axis of the wave in the oscillation of the E and B rings. See figure 2E.
I = Icm + m*D2, I = m*r2 + m*D2, I = m*(r2 + D2)
Ib = mt*cos2 * (h2*cos4 + h2*cos2) = mt*h2*(cos6+cos4), m =
mt*cos2, r = h*cos2, r2 = h2*cos4, D = h*cos, D2 = h2*cos2 Ie =mt*sin2 * (h2*sin4 + h2*sin2) = mt*h2*(sin6+sin4), m =
mt*sin2, r = h*sin2, r2 = h2*sin4, D = h*sin, D2 = h2*sin2
The moment of inertia Ia is due to Ib and Ie. Ia = Ib + Ie = mt*h2*(cos6+cos4) + mt*h2*(sin6+sin4) =
If we have waves traveling unimpeded
wa = wb = we = w, since the angular velocity w is constant, the rate of change of the angular velocity, the
angular acceleration, d(w)/dt = 0, and each equation is simplified. Ta = (Ib-Ie)*we*wb
Ta = (mt*h2*(cos6+cos4) - mt*h2*(sin6+sin4))*w2
Ta = mt*h2*w2*(cos6+cos4 - sin6-sin4)
Te = (Ia-Ib)*wb*wa
Te = (mt*h2*(cos6+cos4 + sin6+sin4) - mt*h2*(cos6+cos4)*w2
Te = mt*h2*w2*(sin6+sin4)
Ta + Tb + Te = mt*h2*w2*((cos6+cos4-sin6-sin4) +(-cos6-cos4)
+(sin6+sin4)) = 0, The sum of the torques is zero.
Figure 7 - Unimpeded torques of the light wave
Ta, blue, (cos6+cos4-sin6-sin4). Tb, green,
(-cos6-cos4). Te, red, (sin6+sin4). Cyan, reference sine wave. The sum of the torques is zero while the waves travel unimpeded through
If the waves are impeded or impeded while being detected
the d(w)/dt terms are no longer zero. Ta = Ia*dwa/dt + (Ib-Ie)*we*wb
Ta = mt*h2*(cos6+cos4 +
sin6+sin4)*dwa/dt + mt*h2*(cos6+cos4 - sin6-sin4)*we*wb
Ta = mt*h2 *[(cos6+cos4 + sin6+sin4)*dwa/dt + ((cos6+cos4 -
sin6-sin4)*we*wb)] = mass torque or spin.
Te = Ie*dwe/dt + (Ia-Ib)*wb*wa
Te = mt*h2*(sin6+sin4)*dwe/dt + mt*h2*(sin6+sin4)*wb*wa
Te = mt*h2*(sin6+sin4) *[dwe/dt + (wb*wa)] = electrical torque
The waves change their energy content or
dump their energy as photons through angular momentum = spin, magnetic torque or electrical torque. The later two do their work with Faraday's and Ampere's laws. This is the primary mechanism for
wave-wave or wave-particle interactions.
Figure 6 - A stack of cross sections through the electromagnetic wave
as it covers one wavelength. The lines in the middle are a reference between the circle which is expanding and
the circle which is shrinking, the hypotenuse of the right triangle of figure 2E. This is a summation of the movement in the movie and the movie array. Science as art.
E = force/q, forceE = q*E B = force/(q*v), forceB = q*v*B
forceE = forceB q*E = q*v*B J. J. Thomson determined the mass to charge ratio of
the electron using this equation. Here the forces are equal but this is similar to the Lorentz force = q*E + q*v*B. We only use it with the
velocity v equal to c, the charge moves at the speed of light and the two forces are equal.
The electrostatic force of repulsion by the charge equals the magnetic pinch force of attraction on the charge. We see it in the ring electron and the electromagnetic wave. E = c*B, cancelled q, units are volts per meter or kg*m/(A*s3) E/B = c
E2/B2 = c2, square E2/B2 = 1/(u0*e0), c2 = 1/(u0*e0) E2*e0 = B2/u0, kg/(m*s2). The B and E energy densities or pressures are equal. This is the magnetic pinch pressure equals the electrostatic pressure of
repulsion. This magnetic pinch pressure restrains the charge to the thin flux tube ring of the electron like a hose restrains water.
Appendix 2 - Derivation of the wave parameters
There are four variables with values that we seek B, E, q and amps. 2*pi*r*E = volts = energy/q, Faraday's law E*q = energy/2*pi*r, force, energy/wavelength, q = charge E*q = hp*c/(wavelength*2*pi*r) force, energy = hp*c/wavelength, hp is Plank's constant. B*q = hp/(wavelength*2*pi*r), kg/s, substituted B*c*q = E*q
2*pi*r*B = amps*u0, Ampere's law, B = force/(amps*meters) B = amps*u0/2*pi*r or B = amps*u0/wavelength, kg/(a*s2)
(c*hp/u0).5 = 3.976E-10_A*m, amps*wavelength is a constant.
amps = (c*hp/u0).5/(wavelength*2*pi*r).5 or amps = (c*hp/u0).5/wavelength = 3.976E-10_A*m/wavelength. This is the maximum amps.
There is a variable current which flows between the rings of figure 2E as shown on figure 2G.
q2 = amps * 2*pi*r/c, q = (c*hp/u0).5/(wavelength*2*pi*r).5 * 2*pi*r/c, substituted for amps q = (c*hp/u0).5/wavelength.5 * (2*pi*r).5/c = q = (hp/(c*u0)).5 * (2*pi*r/wavelength).5 = qw = (hp/(c*u0)).5 = (c*hp*e0).5 = 1.326E-18_A*s, charge. We see that qw - the charge of the electromagnetic wave - is a constant that does not vary with wavelength if 2*pi*r = wavelength. For long wavelengths the charge is thinly spread. For shorter wave lengths the charge is more densly spread. qw2 = hp/(c*u0)
(c/(u0*hp)).5 = 6.000359E23_a*s/(kg*m), curiously close to Avogadro's number
amps = qw*frequency amps = qw*c/wavelength hp = qw2*c*u0 = qw2/(c*e0), qw2 = hp/(c*u0) hp = qw2/(c*e0), hp is Plank's constant. qw is the charge of electromagnetic waves. hp = Ce2/(2*c*e0*alpha), Ce is the charge of the electron. Alpha is the fine structure constant. Ce2/(2*c*e0*alpha) = qw2/(c*e0), hp = hp. Ce2 = qw2*2*alpha, qw = Ce/(2*alpha).5, This qw is 8.277 times the charge of the electron. Why is this so? This is the total charge qw which is shared between the E and B rings. qw = qx + qy = qw*cos2 + //qw*sin2. This is the division of the charge in the x y plane between the two
B = amps*u0/2*pi*r, kg/(a*s2). Ampere's law. B = (c*hp/u0).5/(wavelength*2*pi*r).5 *uo/(2*pi*r), substituted for amps
B = (c*hp*u0).5/(wavelength*2*pi*r).5/(2*pi*r) or B = (c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2.
B2/u0 = energy density B2/u0 = ((c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2)2/u0 B2/u0 = (c*hp*u0)/wavelength4/u0 B2/u0 = c*hp/wavelength4
B2*wavelength3/u0 = c*hp/wavelength. This is energy density times wavelength cube equals energy.
E = c*B = c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2 E2*e0 = energy density E2*e0 = (c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2)2*e0 E2*e0 = c3*hp*u0*e0/wavelength4 E2*e0 = c*hp/wavelength4, u0*e0 =1/c2
E2*wavelength3*e0 = c*hp/wavelength. This is energy density times wavelength cube equals energy.
Powers of 1/wavelength
energy = hp*c/wavelength, one over wavelength amps = qw*frequency = qw*c/wavelength = (hp/(c*u0)).5 *c/wavelength, one over wavelength B = (c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2, One over wavelength2 E = B*c = c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2, One over wavelength2 dB/dt = 4*pi*B*frequency = 4*pi*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2*c/wavelength = 4*pi*c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength3, One over wavelength3 dE/dt = 4*pi*E*frequency = 4*pi*c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2*c/wavelength = 4*pi*c2*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength3, One over wavelength3 B2/u0 = hp*c/wavelength4, One over wavelength4 E2*e0 = hp*c/wavelength4, One over wavelength4
Red light example
wavelength = 633E-9_m, for red light frequency = c/wavelength = 4.736E14_1/s qw = (hp/(c*u0)).5 = 1.326E-18_A*s, charge amps = (c*hp/u0).5/wavelength = qw*frequency = qw*c/wavelength = 6.281E-4_A B = (c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2 = 1.2469E-3_kg/(A*s2), Teslas dB/dt = 4*pi*B*frequency = 7.421E12_kg/(A*s3), Teslas/second E = c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2 = 373815_kg*m/(A*s3), volts/meter B2/u0 = E2*e0 = c*hp/wavelength4 = 1.237_kg/(m*s2), energy density or pressure B2/u0*wavelength3 = 3.318E-19_kg*m2/s2, energy
Electron gamma ray example
me*c2 = hp*c/wavelength = 8.187E-14_kg*m2/s2, energy. me = mass of the electron wavelength = hp*c/(me*c2) = hp/(me*c)= 2.4263E-12_m, of the gamma ray frequency = c/wavelength = 1.235E20_1/s qw = (hp/(c*u0)).5 = 1.326E-18_A*s, charge amps = (c*hp/u0).5/wavelength = qw*frequency = qw*c/wavelength = 163.865_A, B = (c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2 = 8.4869E7_kg/(A*s2), Teslas dB/dt = 4*pi*B*frequency = 1.317E29_kg/(A*s3), Teslas/second E = c*(c*hp*u0).5/wavelength2 = 2.5443E16_kg*m/(A*s3), volts/meter B2/u0 = E2*e0 = c*hp/wavelength4 = 5.7319E21_kg/(m*s2), energy density or pressure B2/u0*wavelength3 = 8.187E-14_kg*m2/s2, energy
Ring electron and electron gamma ray
A and qw are 1/(2*alpha).5 = 8.277 time bigger in the electron gamma ray than the ring electron. B and E are 2*pi/(2*alpha).5 = 52.009 times
bigger in the ring electron than in the gamma ray. Ring electron energy density me*c2/3.853E-41_m3 = 2.12E27_kg/(m*s2) is 3.69E5 times bigger. Ring electron density is
2.364E10_kg/m3. Nuclear density is 42 billion times larger at 10E21_kg/m3.
Appendix 3 - Braided Wires - Figure 7A
Wires can be woven together to make quite good toy sine and cosine waves. Ribbons, felt or foam strips can also be used. Physical models are the best analogs for reality. I make
the individual sine waves out of different colors of 12 or 14 gage solid core copper wires. I bend the wires around two nails held in a vise and move the "s" shape along while bending until the
sine wave is complete. I then weave two of the sine waves together which produces a sine and cosine combination. This figure shows the top and side views of the resulting weaved wires. Tactile
sensation amplifies visual sensation.
This shows the construction of the figure 7A. I wrote a Liberty Basic program to draw the circles. A Paint program was used to color and clean up. Almost all of the black lines
are removed by using Paint several times to fill the background first with black and then with white. The rest of the graphics and movies in this paper were also Basic programs and Paint.
Is energy stored in the area or the circumference of the flux tubes?
At the cosmic scale, objects are
mostly volume and little surface. At the smallest scale, objects are mostly surface and little volume. Volume/surface of a sphere = radius/3. For the Cosmos, radius/3 = 4.73E25_m. For red light,
wavelength/3 = 211E-9_m. At the smallest scale, objects are mostly circumference and little area. Area/circumference of a circle = radius/2. For red light, wavelength/2 = 316E-9_m. The
circumference is 3 million times bigger than the area. We would expect circumference to be much more important. The circumference of the ring pair does carry the charge. We previously noticed that when Ampere's law was written to show Maxwell's displacement current, "The toroidal amps in the loops equals the poloidal flux of amps through the area of the loop." Both area and circumference are important.
Rate of change of the area of the rings - d(pi*r2)/dt
pi*r2 = pi*(h*sin2)2 = pi*h2*sin4 = wavelength2*sin4/(64*pi): h = wavelength/(8*pi) pi*r2 = pi*(h*cos2)2 = pi*h2*cos4 = wavelength2*cos4/(64*pi): h = wavelength/(8*pi) d(pi*r2)/dt = wavelength2*cos*sin3/(16*pi), The rate of change of the area of the rings. d(pi*r2)/dt = wavelength2*sin*cos3/(16*pi), Does this go anywhere?
Figure 2H - Graph of the area of the rings
Red, E ring, sin4. Green, B ring, cos4. Blue, E + B rings, sin4 + cos4. Cyan, frequency reference sine
wave. The area of the rings are pi*r2 or pi*h2*sin4 or pi*h2*cos4. The graph of sin4 and cos4 are not sine waves
as is their sum. The sum of the area of the rings is the elevated blue sine wave which oscillates around a value at four times the frequency of the wave. One might say they shimmer. Is this a residual field?
Figure 2J - Graph of rate of change of sin4 and cos4
as in the rate of change of the area of the rings. Red, E ring, 4*cos*sin3. Green, B ring, 4*sin*cos3. Cyan,
frequency reference sine wave.
Tipler's reciprocal results
"Physics for scientist and engineers", 4th. ed., p. 1000-1001; "Maxwell's modification of Ampere's law shows that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field whose line integral around a
curve is proportional to the rate of change of the electric flux. We thus have the interesting reciprocal result that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field (Faraday's law) and a
changing electric field produces a magnetic field (generalized form of Ampere's law)."
Fat text books can be articulate old friends
Tipler's; "Physics for scientist and engineers" or Halliday and Resnick's; "Physics for students of science and engineering", both offer the comprehensive coverage and detail useful in
understanding this field. They are not dumbed down. The internet is like Lake Okeechobee with its shallows miles wide and its occasional pockets of deep water. Is this as shallow as a mud flat or is this a pocket of deep
water? Rose Anne says this website is like the mathematician in "A Beautiful Mind" putting his letters in an unused mailbox for pickup by imagined readers.
Before there was writing there were stories. Theories are little stories we use to think about and describe reality; scientific, political or otherwise. Apparently we prefer
our ideas served on the platter of a story. Something in us wants us to believe a story. Repetition makes the heart grow fonder. These are addictive memes. We are even seduced by a weak story. A
story is an audio, visual, sensory experience as required by neuromarketing. Brain scans would show stories activate pleasure centers while facts do not. There is a narcotic effect in the mantra or
in constant repetition of stories. The opiate of the masses is endorphine based. This makes us vulnerable to manipulation. Fancy theories, flag wavers, fundamentalist and fanatics all have their
stories. The best stories to believe are based on evidence from multiple sources. Some - which are widely accepted - have only hearsay (he said) evidence or anecdotal (more little stories) evidence.
Some - which are properly called dogma - are said to be accepted without evidence, as a requirement for membership in a group. Monkey see, monkey do. We are primates if you prefer the story of
evolution instead of the story of Noah's ark. Parotting a plethora of preposterous stories, taken unquestioned at face value, papers ones reality with a crazy quilt of pernicious percolating
absurdities. There are so many zombies addicted to stories, so many sacred cows, so many mad dogs ready to kill, if your story is different from theirs. Humor them. We seek clarity, (a clear simple
story - like the following).
My son gave me a LED flashlight which uses Faraday's law. A magnet moving bi-directionally in a tube, through a coil of wire, provides a reversing current. That current charges a energy storage
capacitor through diodes that keep the reversing current flowing in one direction. The capacitor acts like a battery to light the LED.
Does space have resistance?
Space is empty. If space had any resistance, electromagnetic waves would be damped quickly, dissipate their energy as I2R heat, instead of traveling
for billions of light years. The impedance of space, is more properly described as shorthand for the ratio, V/I = Faraday's voltage divided by Ampere's current in electromagnetic
waves = 376.73 ohms. Electromagnetic waves have this V/I ratio so antennas should be most efficient when matched to this V/I ratio. This ratio is called impedance because it has units of V/I or ohms.
says accelerated charges radiate. Changes in direction are regarded as accelerations so something in a circular orbit is accelerated. Accelerated charges are changing amps which
are produced by d(B)/dt. The flux of B through the area or rate of change of the circumference of the loop radiates the -E seen in the loop. Arcing, which is the radiation or emission of currents, occurs at a lower potential from pointed objects,
those with a smaller radius of curvature. The radius of curvature of the flux or of the loop is the wavelength/(2*pi) which can be very small so the radiation or emissions can be almost