10 April 2013
Faraday's disk generator and motor demonstrate the key components of forces, tangent velocity, magnetic field and current or moving charge all being perpendicular in three directions. Torques are also perpendicular in three directions in Euler's equations.
The wire provides a current from the battery in a radial direction through the magnet which has a verticle magnetic field. The current and magnetic field are perpendicular to the tangent torque. The simple motor heats up. It sometimes spins the suspended nail or dry wall screw dangerously fast. The nail or screw can sling off so protect your eyes. These are also called homopolar motors. See Valone or K&J.
This is the origin of van der Waal's forces. Can you see how there is a concentration of charge and mass along the long axis of the ellipsoid? Can you see how a chain of these ellipsoids, with their oppositely charged ends, would stick together like magnetic beads? Can you see how there is a concentration of charge and mass along the line of a long chain of these ellipsoids?The charges orbit in a slightly twisted plane, as they orbit, they precess around the polar axis where the orbital planes intersect. We saw the elliptical orbit cause charged ends of the ellipse. That charge is now concentrated by the precession of the elliptical plane around the polar axis. Rotating dipoles and rings can be gyroscopes. A twirling baton is seen airborne and rotating like a dipole. When you apply a tilting torque to a gyroscope, it precesses in a direction perpendicular to both the axis of the tilting torque and perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Rotating dipoles form slightly elliptical orbital rings which must precess like gyroscopes into spheres for us to see them as spherical atoms on scanning tunneling electron microscope pictures. Dipoles rotate into ellipses. Ellipses rotate or precess into spheres. When they are in the presence of a charge or force, atoms experience a tilting torque which tries to align the charged axis of the ellipse with the attracting external charge - like a compass tries to align with a magnet. This tilting torque produces a rolling precession around the polar axis of the ellipse. The ellipse rolls around its polar axis. The atoms precess like beads rolling on a string. A polarized elliptical ring precesses into a rolling polarized ellipsoid in the presence of a charge. We see them as polarized atoms. The atom which is a bipolar ellipsoid, prolate spheroid and dipole, aligns with charges. The opposite charges on each end of the atoms attract each other so the atoms stack in rows and columns like magnetic beads, demonstrating van der Waals forces. The poloidal magnetic field is parallel to the axis of rotation of the electron and proton rings. The axis of the magnetic field is normal to the orbital plane. It rotates with the precession and is blurred by the precession, to a blinking north-south-north-south. This is like Larmor precession. This is similar to the description of helical electromagnetic waves. They can be described by Euler's equations.When Larmor precession occurs in an MRI, tissues absorb energy from the resonant radio wave which forces them into a high energy state, spin red up where the magnetic fields repell each other. As the tissues return to a lower energy state, spin red down where the magnetic fields attract each other, they radiate the energy as radio waves which form the image. Dr. Hornak has a great MRI site which suggested this graphic. See my son's MRI. When the energy of a photon matches the energy difference between the two spin states of an electron, proton or atom an absorption of energy may occur. Likewise, when the spin state goes from a higher to a lower energy a photon is emitted, again with this same energy. The energy is absorbed or emitted to make a transition between the spin up and spin down states or a spin-flip. For hydrogen the gyromagnetic ratio = 42.58 MHz/T, megahertz per Tesla for the static magnetic field. One can also see a spin-flip as a rotation or a precession. See forces due to moving charge.In the left figure - the north and south poles are where the spirals start and stop. The polar angle only goes from zero to pi, we have not shown the return path from pi to two times pi. The equatoral angle makes many loops of two times pi. This is slightly like the way charges oscillate in magnetic bottles in the Van Allen belt. The charges loop around and reverse direction at each end of their spiral path between the poles.
- This figure came from electric gravity.
- The barycenter, the center of mass, is at the common focus of the red electron and blue proton ellipses.
- Using Kepler's law, the charge points or dots are separated by equal periods of time and each sweep out equal area triangles in equal periods of time along their elliptical orbits. A text file which can be opened with Basic calculates the elliptical radii and angles.
- These ellipses are very polarized. The charge and mass are not concentric.
- The velocity of elliptical orbits slow down as they move toward apogee. Since they spend more time near apogee, at a slower speed, the charge and mass density is non-uniform and is greater farther out.
- The electron is on the left, apogee side of its orbit, 17/23 of the time, so the left side is more negative. It is on the right, perigee side of its orbit, 6/23 of the time.
- The proton is on the right, apogee side of its orbit, 17/23 of the time, so the right side is more positive.
- These charged elliptical rings precess into ellipsoids like beads rolling on a string. Their charged poles would attract the opposite charged poles of similarly polarized ellipsoidal atoms.
In the right figure - The north and south poles are where the blue and red charges are concentrated, where the orbital planes intersect, at the apogee ends of the elliptical orbits defined by the rotating and precessing dipole of the electron and proton. The charges orbit in a slightly twisted plane which includes the polar axis. They precess around the polar axis, just like a gyroscope, as we have seen in the previous animation. As the orbital plane precesses around the polar axis, it carries with it the magnetic field.